Perforation

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perforation

[‚pər·fə′rā·shən]
(ordnance)
Passage of a missile completely through an object.
(science and technology)
Any hole made by boring, punching, or piercing.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Perforation

 

(1) In botany, an opening in the cell membrane of a vessel in vascular plants. Water passes freely through the perforations and into the vessels. The perforations may be on the lateral and transverse walls of the cells. If a perforation is single, it is called a simple perforation (in the vessels of oaks and herbs). Multiple perforations are arranged in parallel series (scalariform perforations), in an irregular network (reticulate perforations), or as a group of approximately circular holes (foraminate perforations). Ferns have scalariform perforations, ivies reticulate perforations, and ephedras foraminate perforations.

(2) In medicine, the penetration of the wall of a hollow or tubular organ, for example, the intestine.


Perforation

 

in medicine, an opening or hole in the wall of a cavitary or tubular organ, as a result of which the cavity of the organ communicates with surrounding cavities or tissues.

Perforation may be caused by intrusion of a foreign body from the lumen of an organ (for example, perforation of the esophagus by a swallowed bone) or externally (a penetrating knife or bullet wound). It may also be caused by disruption of all layers of an organ by a pathological process, for example, perforation of an ulcer or tumor of the stomach or intestine or perforation of the vermiform appendix or the gallbladder with gangrenous appendicitis or cholecystitis.

When there is a perforation, the contents of a hollow organ, by penetrating surrounding tissue (periesophageal or perirectal) or the abdominal cavity, cause development of a rapidly progressing purulent inflammatory process called mediastinitis, paraproctitis, or peritonitis. Treatment consists in emergency surgery.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
Abbreviations NEC: Necrotizing enterocolitis SIP: Spontaneous intestinal perforation ELBW: Extremely low birth weight VLBW: Very low birth weight PPD: Primary peritoneal drainage PL: Primary laparotomy TPN: Total parenteral nutrition GBA: Gut-brain axis NDI: Neurodevelopmental impairment CNS: Central nervous system ENS: Enteric nervous system HPA: Hypothalamic-pituitary axis OR: Odds ratio RR: Relative risk CI: Confidence interval MDI: Mental developmental index PDI: Psychomotor developmental index RCT: Randomized clinical trial.
Candida intestinal perforation in a nonimmunocompromised infant.
[sup][24],[25] Due to concern of high risk of intestinal perforation during treatment in Type II EATL, surgical intervention prior to chemotherapy may be beneficial and deserves consideration in the treatment planning for these patients.
He was a 42-year-old with a history of laparotomy for intestinal perforation due to bullet injury in the Iran-Iraq war.
We diagnosed a small intestinal perforation in this patient, which was likely caused by a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID)-induced ulcer.
Patients with both types of EATL frequently present with small intestinal perforation or bowel obstruction, abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhea.
Intestinal perforation is the most feared complication in colorectal ESD.
The gastrointestinal involvement in WG was reported very rarely [17,18] and occasionally complicated by intestinal perforation [19, 20].
Ascariasis should thus be investigated in patients with non-specific abdominal pain or intestinal perforation especially in tropical countries to avoid such potentially fatal complications.
Intestinal perforation caused by chicken bone mimicking perforated colonic diverticulitus.
In these sequential X-ray evaluations, there was no evidence of intestinal perforation. However, certain radiological findings of intestinal enlargement and abdominal distention were recorded.

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