Venacion eucampodroma, con venas primarias, secundarias, inter secundarias, terciarias y vena intramarginal
During this second phase a shift occurred in the operational setting from (obligatory) interventions at the fluctuation margins towards (voluntary and therefore more intentional) intramarginal
interventions and timely increases in interest rates, more or less sealed by the Basle-Nyborg agreement of September 1987.
As Billings and Agthe (1980) point out, the use of average price tends to introduce an upward bias in estimated price elasticity, particularly when the marginal price changes while intramarginal
rates remain constant, because the change in average price is smaller than the change in marginal price.
Macroeconomic conflict with the United States, however, while contributing to instability among European currencies, again placed the inflationary risks associated with intramarginal
interventions in a new light.
In Lindahl's analysis, this price would also be paid on intramarginal
interventions procedures will be maintained.
Likewise, he viewed land's rental rate as a surplus determined by the gap between the average and marginal products of the variable factor, or alternatively, by the superior productivity of the intramarginal
doses of the factor.
intervention by the ECB would be possible at its discretion, via individual arrangements with national central banks.
Instead, in the absence of native labour, the average productivity of aliens is only a fraction t [less than or equal to] 1 of their potential capita-output so that (one effective unit of) foreign labour is a perfect substitute for a native worker only at the margin, but not for intramarginal
Competition means expanding sales at competitors' expense; and industries with easy entry usually have many small, high-cost, hardly profitable, and highly vulnerable marginal firms, whose markets are easy to encroach upon and which can be driven out of the market altogether--something that large, highly profitable, intramarginal
firms are likely to do, because they can most easily invest in added productive capacity out of retained earnings, which are always their cheapest source of funds, just as such investment is usually the most profitable outlet for such firms.
Countries were also allowed, but not required, to undertake intramarginal
W = (TR + S) - (TC - R) where: TR = total revenue; S = consumers' surplus; TC = total pecuniary costs; and R = intramarginal
rents or producers' surplus (here zero given the horizontal MC curve).