Ipiutak are culturally distinct from the western Thule, who were whale hunters that are more clearly ancestors of the modern Inupiaq.
Ipiutak hunted seals and smaller mammals on the coast but don't seem to have hunted whale.
How the Ipiutak would have sustained a village of hundreds on the resources of the area, without evidence of whaling, is a puzzle to historians and archeologists, as is where the Ipiutak went.
Given the frequent manufacture of the oldest mouthpieces from perishable wood (Collins 1937; Rudenko 1961), and the very small size of Norton-Near Ipiutak organic artifact samples from potential whaling locales (Giddings and Anderson 1986; Larsen and Rainey 1948), the absence of float gear might be considered inconclusive.
The Ipiutak successors of Norton-Near Ipiutak, inhabiting parts of coastal and interior Alaska from Seward Peninsula north (ca.
While the precise nature of Ipiutak subsistence-settlement systems is still somewhat unclear, the high proportions of terrestrial hunting gear, together with anomalously high caries rates, suggest a marked emphasis on terrestrial resources.
The genetic contribution of early ASTt, Choris, Norton-Near Ipiutak, and other Palaeoeskimo groups to historic populations is undetermined, though likely greater for Alaskan Yupik groups south of Seward Peninsula than for others (Dumond 1988a; Fitzhugh 1988; cf.
Contemporary with later Ipiutak and Okvik-OBS, Bimirk groups descended from the latter settled both the Siberian and Alaskan Chukchi Sea coasts in the second half of the first millennium A.
Dorset + + - - Norton-Near Ipiutak + + + + Ipiutak + + + - Okvik-Old Bering Sea ++ ++ + + Birnirk ++ ++ + + Eady/Pioneering Thule ++ ++ + + Punuk ++ ++ ++ ++ Late/Classic Thule ++ ++ ++ ++ Late Prehistoric ++ ++ ++ ++ Modified Thule ++ ++ + + Whale Selection Whale Archaeological Float bone of small bone in culture gear house whales burials Denbigh - - - - Independence I - - - - Predorset - - - - Saqqaq - - - - Old Whaling - - - - Choris - - - - Dorset - - - - Norton-Near Ipiutak - - - - Ipiutak - - - - Okvik-Old Bering Sea + + + + Birnirk + + + + Eady/Pioneering Thule + + + + Punuk + ++ ++ + Late/Classic Thule + ++ ++ + Late Prehistoric + ++ ++ + Modified Thule + + ?
Larsen, Helge 1952 The Ipiutak culture: its origins and relationships," in Indian Tribes of Aboriginal America: Selected Papers of the XXIVth International Congress of Americanists, edited by Sol Tax, pp.