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an ancient Eskimo culture of walrus, seal, and caribou hunters that dates from the first half of the first millennium A.D. It was investigated by American and Danish archaeologists in 1939–41 on Point Hope, Alaska. Approximately 700 semisub-terranean quadrangular wooden dwellings with hearths were discovered along with approximately 140 burials, some in wooden coffins, with masks on the skulls and eyes made of ivory and jet inserted in the orbits. Flaked stone implements, articles made of bone and antler (arrowheads, toggle-harpoon heads, needles), decorated animal figurines, and carvings in ivory were also found.
REFERENCESLarsen, H., and Fr. Rainey. “Ipiutak and the Arctic Whale Hunting Culture.” Anthropological Papers of the American Museum of Natural History, 1948, VOL. 42.
Giddings, J. L. Ancient Men of the Arctic. London, 1968.