Iqta

Iqta

 

a term designating a conditional grant of an allotment of land (a type of benefice) to feudal lords in the countries of the Middle East in the Middle Ages. The iqta is first mentioned in Arab sources in the late seventh century but became widespread during the eighth through the tenth centuries under the Abba-sids. In the ninth century the term iqta began to be used for the caliph’s grant of a province to an emir, with the right to collect all or part of the taxes for his own use. The lands of the iqtas were considered to be state-owned, but in practice, even in the ninth century, they began to turn into conditional feudal private property like a fief. The fundamental difference between the iqta and state lands was that on the state lands the state appeared as the sole owner of the lands and the direct (through its financial apparatus) exploiter of the peasants, and on the iqtas, the right to collect taxes, as well as the management of them, passed to the vassals (or muqtia). The stock of iqta lands was greatly expanded in the Seljuk state (11th and 12th centuries) and in the Mongol Empire of Hulagu and his successors (13th and 14th centuries). The owners of iqtas in Iran, Middle Asia, and Azerbaijan, in addition to tax immunity, gained administrative and judicial immunity in the mid-14th century. In Egypt, the iqta received its greatest development under the Ayyubids (12th and 13th centuries) and the Mamluks (13th to 16th century) and was retained until the early 19th century. The iqta as a form of conditional feudal ownership was known in the Sultanate of Delhi; in the Empire of the Great Moguls, it was known as a jagir. In the Ottoman Empire, the terms ziamet and timar were used for the iqta.

REFERENCES

Khrestomatiia po istorii Khalifata.[Moscow] 1968.
Pevzner, S. B. “Ikta v Egipte v kontse XIII-XIV vv.” In the collection Pamiati akad. I. Iu. Krachkovskogo. Leningrad, 1958.
Petrushevskii, I. P. Zemledelie i agrarnye otnosheniia v Irane XIII-XIV vekov. Moscow-Leningrad, 1960. Pages 256–269.
Semenova, L. A. Salakh ad-din mamliuki v Egipte. Moscow, 1966. (Bibliography.)

I. P. PETRUSHEVSKII

References in periodicals archive ?
En epoca otomana, el proceso de desposesion de las y los campesinas/os a traves de impuestos, prestamos, y diversos mecanismos coercitivos y legales (14) culmina en la segunda mitad del siglo XIX con el afianzamiento del sistema iqta 'y, en el que una clase latifundista--los llamados bekawat o aghas--posee la tierra--raqaba--, formalmente propiedad estatal o miri.
Estos solian ser beneficiarios de una concesion del tipo iqta (cobro de parte de los impuestos y exenciones) o inzal (entrega de un fundo)49, exempli gratia: el gobernador de Guadix, Abu Yus (50), al que el emir Abd Allah habia otorgado un fundo, o Kabbab b.
Under a sharecropping system, a portion of the income from the land would compensate the Iqta holder for his civil service.
1029) wrote some modern pages denouncing the harmful economic and social effects of the iqta system, grants to soldiers of rich lands in lower Iraq.
29) Donald Ostrowski has suggested that the pomest'e system was modeled on the iqta system--a well-known system in the Islamic world by which military commanders were allowed temporarily to collect taxes from assigned lands to maintain themselves and their troops--that could have reached Muscovy via the Tatars of the Kipchak steppes, and that "the entire military and cavalry system of Muscovy was based directly on the Mongol system, including tactics, strategies, formations, weapons, and materiel.
The purpose behind this action was to increase agricultural production, Iqta has been classified into two categories:
This sounds like a distant ancestor of the Seljuq iqta system.
Amitai, "Tarco-Mongolian Nomads and the Iqta System in the Islamic Middle East (c.
Actually, Petry ventures a bit beyond his earlier studies, and here suggests in a slightly less hesitant manner that Qansuh al-Ghawri was busy erecting a fiscal basis independent of the iqta system, in order, perhaps, to finance a military formation independent of the mamluk institution.
It is a relief to find that in his discussion of the thorny question of iqta (p.
Other words whose appearance in al-Tabari's chronicle deserves close study include jund, iqta , and Shakiriyya.
After a clear historical introduction, Professor Lambton devotes six separate chapters to the wazirate, law and its administration, the iqta, landed property, agriculture and irrigation, and taxation.