Iran hostage crisis


Also found in: Wikipedia.

Iran hostage crisis,

in U.S. history, events following the seizure of the American embassy in Tehran by Iranian students on Nov. 4, 1979. The overthrow of Muhammad Reza Shah PahleviMuhammad Reza Shah Pahlevi
, 1919–80, shah of Iran (1941–79). Educated in Switzerland, he returned (1935) to Iran to attend the military academy in Tehran. He ascended the throne in 1941 after his father, Reza Shah Pahlevi, suspected of collaboration with the
..... Click the link for more information.
 of Iran by an Islamic revolutionary government earlier in the year had led to a steady deterioration in Iran-U.S. relations. In response to the exiled shah's admission (Sept., 1979) to the United States for medical treatment, a crowd of about 500 seized the embassy. Of the approximately 90 people inside the embassy, 52 remained in captivity until the end of the crisis.

President CarterCarter, Jimmy
(James Earl Carter, Jr.), 1924–, 39th President of the United States (1977–81), b. Plains, Ga, grad. Annapolis, 1946.

Carter served in the navy, where he worked with Admiral Hyman G. Rickover in developing the nuclear submarine program.
..... Click the link for more information.
 applied economic pressure by halting oil imports from Iran and freezing Iranian assets in the United States. At the same time, he began several diplomatic initiatives to free the hostages, all of which proved fruitless. On Apr. 24, 1980, the United States attempted a rescue mission that failed. After three of eight helicopters were damaged in a sandstorm, the operation was aborted; eight persons were killed during the evacuation. Secretary of State Cyrus VanceVance, Cyrus Roberts,
1917–2002, U.S. secretary of state (1977–80), b. Clarksburg, W.Va., grad. Yale (B.A., 1939, LL.B., 1942). After seeing action in the Navy during World War II, Vance practiced law, becoming a respected international lawyer.
..... Click the link for more information.
, who had opposed the action, resigned after the mission's failure.

In 1980, the death of the shah in Egypt and the invasion of Iran by Iraq (see Iran-Iraq WarIran-Iraq War,
1980–88, protracted military conflict between Iran and Iraq. It officially began on Sept. 22, 1980, with an Iraqi land and air invasion of western Iran, although Iraqi spokespersons maintained that Iran had been engaging in artillery attacks on Iraqi towns
..... Click the link for more information.
) made the Iranians more receptive to resolving the hostage crisis. In the United States, failure to resolve the crisis contributed to Ronald Reagan's defeat of Carter in the presidential election. After the election, with the assistance of Algerian intermediaries, successful negotiations began. On Jan. 20, 1981, the day of President Reagan's inauguration, the United States released almost $8 billion in Iranian assets and the hostages were freed after 444 days in Iranian detention; the agreement gave Iran immunity from lawsuits arising from the incident.

In 2000 former hostages and their survivors sued Iran under the 1996 Antiterrorism Act, which permits U.S. citizens to sue foreign governments in cases of state-sponsored terrorism. The following year they won the lawsuit by default when Iran did not offer a defense. The U.S. State Dept. sought dismissal of the suit, arguing it would hinder its ability to negotiate international agreements, and a federal judge dismissed the plaintiffs' suit for damages in 2002, ruling that the agreement that resulted in their release barred awarding any damages.

Bibliography

See G. Sick, All Fall Down (1985).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
References in periodicals archive ?
You could almost hear, in the supreme leader's voice, an echo of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, who said during the Iran hostage crisis, "America can't do a damn thing against us." That Iranian overconfidence is what makes this confrontation so dangerous.
During the Iran hostage crisis, for example, President Jimmy Carter used the law to freeze assets of the Iranian government.
Yoo said he believes the administration will cite a challenge in 1981 to President Jimmy Carter's use of emergency power to block Iranian assets in the wake of the Iran hostage crisis, which Yoo called the "only relevant" Supreme Court precedent.
11 terrorist attacks and the Iran hostage crisis in 1979.
Tehran is celebrating the Iran Hostage Crisis (1979-1981), a major international crisis caused by the seizure of the U.S.
The words are taken from a parody of the Beach Boys' song "Barbara Ann," which replaces the lyrics with "Bomb bomb bomb, bomb bomb Iran." The parody was written in 1979 during the Iran hostage crisis, and was re-popularized in 2007 when Sen.
Condolence messages and prayers started to pour in from people on social media for the political scholar who was ranked as one of Carter's top aides in the years when the latter's administration was facing high levels of criticism for the inability to control the Iran hostage crisis and the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan.
came out in 1980) but the fashion aspects weren't as fashionable and the hangers-on moved on; and the United States was just recovering from a 1970s that featured the OPEC oil embargo, the Iran hostage crisis, the ignominious end of the Vietnam War and the rise of Cambodia's Khmer Rouge; and it was bookended, more or less, by the Kent State killings and the Jim Jones massacre.
Following a brief rebound after the Iran hostage crisis in late 1979, his approval retreated into the 30s ahead of the 1980 election.
Kennedy administration's handling of relations with Cuba in the 18 months prior to the Cuban Missile Crisis, the Carter White House's reaction to the events of 1977-1979 that precipitated the Iran Hostage Crisis, and President Bill Clinton's response to the Balkan crisis of 1992-1995.
His one term in the White House was defined by national economic struggles and the embarrassing Iran hostage crisis. Asked on Thursday if he had any regrets, Carter said he wished he had sent one more helicopter in the failed attempt to rescue the Iran hostages, adding that he would have been re-elected had the effort succeeded.
He covered the fall of Saigon and the Iran hostage crisis. He served as CBS's Moscow correspondent and subsequently was a chief correspondent in Israel.

Full browser ?