Irish


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Irish

1. another name for Irish Gaelic

Irish

 

a nation (natsiia, nation in the historical sense); the native population of Ireland. The total population in the Irish Republic is more than 2.9 million (1971, estimate); in Great Britain, 1.3 million (mainly in Northern Ireland). Mass emigrations from Ireland, especially after the mid-19th century, led to the creation of significant groups of the Irish in the USA (about 2 million), Canada (more than 160,000), and Australia and Oceania (more than 60,000). The majority of the Irish speak English. About a quarter of the population of the Irish Republic and some of the Irish emigrants speak Irish.

The Irish are predominantly Catholic, and the influence of the Catholic Church is great. The ethnic group of the Irish (formed in the tenth to 12th centuries) came mainly from the Celtic-speaking Gaels, who resettled on the island from Scotland in the fourth century B.C. Survivals of the clan structure of the Gaels were retained as late as the 19th century.

The Irish nation took form (18th and 19th centuries) in difficult and, in fact, colonialist conditions, enduring the economic and national oppression of the English. The English authorities prohibited the Irish from using their Irish (Gaelic) language and persecuted the Catholic Church. The majority of the Irish were forced to change to English, but they retained their ethnic Irish identity.

In the 1890’s a struggle began for the revival of the Irish language and culture. After the founding in 1921 of the Irish Free State, Irish was recognized there as an official language, along with English. The Irish of Northern Ireland, remaining within the framework of Great Britain, are waging a struggle against economic oppression and national and religious discrimination. In material and spiritual culture, the Irish who live in Ireland preserve some traits linking them with other peoples of Celtic origin (the Scots and Welsh).

REFERENCES

Engels, F. “Drevniaia Irlandiia.” In Arkhiv Marksa i Engel’sa, vol. 10. Leningrad, 1948.
Narody zarubezhnoi Evropy, vol. 2. Moscow, 1965. (Bibliography.)

V. I. KOZLOV


Irish

 

the language of part of the population of the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland; the first official language of the Republic of Ireland (from 1921). Irish belongs to the Goidelic branch of the Celtic languages. The number of those who speak Irish in the Republic of Ireland is approximately 600,000 persons (1971, estimate). Some Irish emigrants also speak Irish. Ancient Irish monuments include the Ogham inscriptions from the fourth and fifth centuries A.D. The Roman alphabet has been used since the seventh century.

Three periods are distinguished in the history of Irish: Old Irish (seventh to tenth centuries), Middle Irish (tenth to 14th centuries), and Modern Irish (since the early 15th century). A voluminous literature (sagas, poetic works, lives, and annals) was preserved in recorded form after the 11th century, although much of it dates to the Old Irish period. The modern Irish literary language is a synthesis of three main dialects—Munster, Connacht, and Ulster. The development of Irish is characterized by a simplification of the noun and verb systems and the appearance of analytical constructions. The system of initial consonant mutations, which is also peculiar to other Celtic languages, remains basically unchanged. The vocabulary contains many borrowings from Latin (from the fifth century). Irish has been heavily influenced by English since the 15th century.

REFERENCES

Thurneysen, R. A Grammar of Old Irish. Dublin, 1946.
Thurneysen, R. Old Irish Reader. Dublin, 1949.
Pokorny, J. Altirische Grammatik. Berlin, 1969.
Dinneen, P. S. An Irish-English Dictionary. Dublin, 1945.

A. A. KOROLEV

References in classic literature ?
They cursed the Queen, they mourned over Ireland, they suggested hideous plunder of the Indian country-side, and then, alas - some of the younger men would go forth and wallow on the ground in spasms of wicked laughter The genius of the Irish for conspiracies is remarkable.
It would be enough if the English, infatuatedly trusting to the integrity of their army, should be startled with news of an Irish regiment revolting from political considerations.
You know the rest of it, my Irish American-Jew boy.
Bid a boy defy his father when the pantomime-cab is at the door, or a girl develop a will of her own when her mother is putting the last touches to the first ball-dress, but do not ask an Irish regiment to embark upon mutiny on the eve of a campaign, when it has fraternised with the native regiment that accompanies it, and driven its officers into retirement with ten thousand clamorous questions, and the prisoners dance for joy, and the sick men stand in the open calling down all known diseases on the head of the doctor, who has certified that they are "medically unfit for active service.
They were eyes different from the eyes I knew, from the blues and greys and hazels of my own family, from the pale and genial blues of the Irish.
Middle-aged Italian labourers, old-country peasants who did not talk English, and who could not dance with the Irish girls, surrounded me.
The Irish ranchers twitted me good-naturedly on my exploit, and patted me on the back until I felt that I had done something heroic.
Nolan, the Irish policeman, had also fallen, sprawling all his great length in the grass, and it was red with his blood.
The people round here, when they're all sodden up with Irish whisky, may believe in such things.
The Irish believe far too much in spirits to believe in spiritualism," he murmured.
He said he had never heard of water-rats in Irish stew, and he would rather be on the safe side, and not try experiments.
With this house it had been the Irish first; and then a Bohemian family had lost a child of it-- though, to be sure, that was uncertain, since it was hard to tell what was the matter with children who worked in the yards.