Irish Republican Army


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Irish Republican Army

(IRA), nationalist organization devoted to the integration of Ireland as a complete and independent unit. Organized by Michael CollinsCollins, Michael,
1890–1922, Irish revolutionary leader. He spent the years from 1907 to 1916 in England, during which period he joined the Fenian movement. He took part in the Easter Rebellion in Dublin in 1916 and was imprisoned for the rest of the year.
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 from remnants of rebel units dispersed after the Easter Rebellion in 1916 (see IrelandIreland,
Irish Eire [to it are related the poetic Erin and perhaps the Latin Hibernia], island, 32,598 sq mi (84,429 sq km), second largest of the British Isles.
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), it was composed of the more militant members of the Irish Volunteers, and it became the military wing of the Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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 party. With the establishment of the Irish Free State in 1922, the IRA became the stronghold of intransigent opposition to Ireland's dominion status and to the separation of Northern Ireland. During the troubled early years of the Free State, the IRA was responsible for numerous bombings, raids, and street battles on both sides of the Irish border.

Popular and effective at first, its fortunes turned after Eamon De ValeraDe Valera, Eamon
, 1882–1975, Irish statesman, b. New York City. He was taken as a child to Ireland. As a young man he joined the movement advocating physical force to achieve Irish independence and took part in the Easter Rebellion of 1916.
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, a former IRA supporter, took over the Free State government in 1932. Weakened by internal dissensions, by a loss of popular support because of its violence and pro-German agitation during World War II, by the attainment of republican objectives in 1949, and by government measures against its illegal activities, the IRA declined swiftly. Eventually outlawed by both Irish governments, it became a secret organization. It perpetrated bombing attacks in Belfast, London, and at the Ulster border during the 1950s, particularly in 1956–57, but then became quiescent until the late 1960s.

In 1969 the IRA split into two groups, the majority, or "officials," advocating a united socialist Ireland but disavowing terrorist activities, and the "provisionals," claiming terrorism as a necessary catalyst for unification. The "provisionals" then began a systematic terrorist campaign in Northern Ireland. In 1972 the "provisionals" extended their terrorism to England, where it culminated in the bombing (1974) of a Birmingham pub that killed 19 persons. In response the British parliament passed the Prevention of Terrorism Act, outlawing the IRA in Britain. The IRA assassinated (1979) Louis Mountbatten, 1st Earl Mountbatten of Burma, and unsuccessfully tried to assassinate Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher in Brighton, England.

In 1994 hopes for peace were raised when the IRA declared a cease-fire. Its legal political arm (Sinn FéinSinn Féin
[Irish,=we, ourselves], Irish nationalist movement. It had its roots in the Irish cultural revival at the end of the 19th cent. and the growing nationalist disenchantment with the constitutional Home Rule movement.
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) began participating in talks with Britain in 1995, but the party was barred from the mid-1996 negotiations because of renewed terrorist bombings by the IRA. Following the IRA's announcement of a new cease-fire in July, 1997, Sinn Féin was allowed to participate in talks that convened in September of that year and resulted in an accord (Apr., 1998) that provided for a new Northern Ireland Assembly comprised of Protestants and Catholics, and greater cooperation between Northern Ireland and the Irish Republic. Full implementation of the accord snagged for several months on the issue of IRA disarmament, but representatives of Sinn Féin participated in the new Northern Irish government established in Dec., 1999.

Britain suspended the new government in 2000 and again in 2001 over the IRA's refusal to agree to disarm, but in Oct., 2001, the IRA began disarming, albeit in secret. A number of incidents in 2002 that indicated the IRA had not abandoned paramilitary activity again led to the suspension of home rule. More recently, the IRA has been accused of involvement in organized criminal activities, such as bank robbery, extortion, smuggling, and counterfeiting. In July, 2005, the IRA announced it was ending its armed campaign, and an independent report (Sept., 2005) that stated the IRA had decommissioned its weapons was greeted with praise and hope by the British and Irish governments (and with disbelief by hard-line Protestant unionists). In July, 2006, the British and Irish governments indicated that they believed the IRA also had ceased all centrally organized criminal activities, and subsequent independent reports indicated that the IRA had taken steps to end its paramilitary operations.

Bibliography

See M. Dillon, The Dirty War (1990); P. Taylor, Behind the Mask (1998); E. Moloney, A Secret History of the IRA (2002).

References in periodicals archive ?
More alarmingly, police recently arrested three accused members of the Irish Republican Army who were allegedly providing training in urban guerrilla tactics to members of Colombia's largest rebel force, the FARC.
Claxton, aged 27, told the court: "The Irish Republican Army was concerned that if money was given to some of the groups, the guns would fall into the hands of people against the peace process.
The accord appeared to be in jeopardy when the new Northern Irish cabinet, elected in June 1998, could not take office because members of Northern Ireland's largest Protestant party, the Ulster Unionist Party, refused to serve alongside members of Sinn Fein until the Irish Republican Army began to disarm itself.
Local police suspect the bombing was carried out by a hard-line breakaway faction of the Irish Republican Army (IRA).
Since the Irish Republican Army cease-fire last year, tensions have eased somewhat here between residents and British forces, but the militarization of the region, including regular helicopter surveillance and fortification of bases, has only increased.
The government's decision came after the Irish Republican Army refused to disarm itself, flouting the 1998 Good Friday peace agreement.
The 52-year-old pleaded not guilty to a charge that on a date between February 1 and March 7, 2005, in Belfast he "addressed a meeting and the purpose of his address was to encourage support for a proscribed organisation, the Irish Republican Army, or to further its activities''.
Months after the 1993 deal -- which affirmed the right of the people of Ireland to self-determination -- the Irish Republican Army (IRA) called a ceasefire.
But what is most disturbing about these cases is that the leadership of the Irish Republican Army (IRA) -- Sinn Fein is its political wing -- has kept silent on the issue.
London, Jumada II 19, 1435, Apr 19, 2014, SPA -- Lawmakers across the political spectrum in Northern Ireland on Saturday condemned the killing of a former senior leader in an Irish Republican Army splinter group, dpa reported.
Higgins' trip -- on his country's first state visit to Britain since Ireland won independence nearly a century ago -- underscores how much the success of Northern Ireland peacemaking has transformed wider relations between the two longtime adversaries since the 1990s, when Irish Republican Army car bombs were still detonating in London.

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