Irish language


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Irish language,

also called Irish Gaelic and Erse, member of the Goidelic group of the Celtic subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages (see Celtic languagesCeltic languages,
subfamily of the Indo-European family of languages. At one time, during the Hellenistic period, Celtic speech extended all the way from Britain and the Iberian Peninsula in the west across Europe to Asia Minor in the east, where a district still known as
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). The history of Irish as a literary language falls into three periods: Old Irish (7th–9th cent. A.D.), Middle Irish (10th–16th cent.), and Modern Irish (since the 16th cent.). In the medieval period a great Irish literature flourished. Grammatically, there are still four cases for the noun (nominative, genitive, vocative, and, in some dialects, dative). In pronunciation the stress is on the first syllable. An acute accent is placed over a vowel to denote length, and a dot is placed over a consonant to indicate aspiration. The alphabet employed today for Irish can be called a variant or a derivative of the Roman alphabet that took shape about the 8th cent. A.D. It has 18 letters: 13 consonants and 5 vowels. The oldest extant Irish texts are inscriptions written in the ogham script (see oghamogham,
 ogam,
or ogum
, ancient Celtic alphabet of one of the Irish runic languages. It was used by the druids and abandoned after the first few centuries of the Christian era.
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). These texts date back to the 5th cent. A.D. or perhaps earlier and differ as much from the early literary Irish that follows them as Latin does from Old French. Native speakers of Irish are now concentrated in the western counties of Ireland. The government of Ireland is trying, thus far unsuccessfully, to revive Irish as the primary language of the country; it is an official language, and the study of Irish is required in preparatory schools. See also Gaelic literatureGaelic literature,
literature in the native tongue of Ireland and Scotland. Since Scots Gaelic became separate from Irish Gaelic only in the 17th cent., the literature is conventionally divided into Old Irish (before 900), Middle Irish (until 1350), Late Middle or Early Modern
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.

Bibliography

See H. Wagner, Linguistic Atlas and Survey of Irish Dialects (4 vol., 1958–69); R. P. M. and W. P. Lehman, An Introduction to Old Irish (1975).

References in periodicals archive ?
The impact of the Northern Ireland Troubles on Irish language theatre (both North and South) also merits further sustained discussion.
The Coventry Irish Language Learning Circle will meet at the Coventry Foyer, Lower Holyhead Road on Thursday evenings from 7pm, starting from April 5.
As regards an Irish Language Act, the current parliamentary arithmetic in Westminster ties the UK government's hands somewhat!
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Several scholars who have studied the Irish language revivalist movement in detail have alluded to the idealism of its leading members, an idealism that inspired those leaders to seek the institution of a utopian Gaelic Ireland.
Finally, it offers taught courses through the Irish language in the Arts, Science and Commerce Faculties, and much of its administration is undertaken through the Irish language.
The Gaeltacht represented the last remnant of a disappearing Irish language in non-contiguous rural areas in Western Ireland.
IRISH language programme SRL is back with a new series - and a sexy new presenter.
The Great Hunger was for de Freine paralleled by the Great Silence for the Irish language. (2) The famine was a linguistic watershed as well.
First, McCabe's knowledge of Irish language and literature provides a richer context, compensating for the "rigidly anglophone" limitations of recent scholarship (2).
Many Irish-men--including some revolutionary heroes--felt that the nation did not need the Irish language, that Ireland would be culturally and politically strong without Irish (and so it is).
Irish Education Minister Mr Micheal Martin announced an initiative yesterday to tackle a drastic fall in the standard of the Irish language in schools.

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