Iron Guard

Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Iron Guard,

Romanian nationalistic, anti-Semitic, and antiparliamentary group, founded in 1924 by Corneliu Zelea CodreanuCodreanu, Corneliu Zelea
, 1899–1938, Romanian political leader and anti-Semitic terrorist. Active in the Romanian student movement against leftists and liberals, he founded (1927) and led the militant, fascist Iron Guard until his conviction for treason in 1938.
..... Click the link for more information.
. Originally named the Legion of the Archangel Michael, it was organized on military lines and operated through terrorism. Its most notable victims were Premier Ion Duca, assassinated in 1933, and ex-Premier Nicolae IorgaIorga, Nicolae
, 1871–1940, Romanian historian and statesman. A professor at the Univ. of Bucharest, he founded (1910) and later led the National Democratic party; after World War I he was president of the Romanian national assembly.
..... Click the link for more information.
, assassinated in 1940. Banned in 1933, the Iron Guard carried on as the All-for-the-Fatherland party. When King Carol IICarol II,
1893–1953, king of Romania, son of King Ferdinand and Queen Marie. While crown prince, he contracted a morganatic marriage with Zizi Labrino but divorced her to marry (1921) Princess Helen of Greece.
..... Click the link for more information.
 proclaimed his personal dictatorship in 1938, he had Codreanu and other leading Guardists imprisoned and eventually shot. Following the king's abduction in 1940, Marshall Ion AntonescuAntonescu, Ion
, 1882–1946, Romanian marshal and dictator. He served in World War I and later became chief of staff, but he fell into disfavor with King Carol II because of his pro-Nazi attitude and his suspected intrigues with the Iron Guard. In World War II, on Sept.
..... Click the link for more information.
 seized power with the help of the Iron Guard, but soon found himself in disagreement with it. He suppressed (1941) an Iron Guard rebellion, and Horia Sima, then leader of the Guard and vice premier, fled to Germany. With the collapse of the Axis Powers in World War II the Iron Guard disappeared from Romanian politics.
The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Iron Guard


(in Rumanian, Garda de fier), a fascist organization created in 1931 by reactionary Rumanian bourgeois-landlord circles. The Iron Guard served as an agent of Hitler in Rumania. After its assassination of the Rumanian prime minister I. G. Duca in 1934, the organization was formally dissolved. It continued to operate under the name of “Everything for the Fatherland.”

After the establishment of the fascist monarchical dictator-ship in February 1938, King Carol II, recognizing the Iron Guard as a rival in the struggle for political power in the country, banned the organization and killed its leader, C. Codreanu, “in an attempt to escape.” In 1940 the leaders of the illegal Iron Guard, including Horia Sima, took part in the formation of General I. Antonescu’s fascist government; however, in January 1941, they came into conflict with Antonescu. After the liberation of Rumania from fascism in 1944, the Iron Guard was dissolved and banned.


Lebedev, N. I. “Zheleznaia gvardiia.” Kami’ II i Gitler. Moscow, 1968.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
An important aspect of the registration, closely followed by the authorities, was that of the requests received from the members of the formers political parties, and especially those coming from the National Peasants' Party, the National Liberal Party and the Iron Guard. Immediately after the establishment of the first single political party, different representatives of the political spectrum--from left to right--hurried to show their adherence to the National Renaissance Front.
The next step taken by Idel is to retrace the significance and the portrayal of death in the Romanian culture; Eliade was surrounded by the ideas of great Romanian personalities, such as Mircea Eminescu or Lucian Blaga, and although Eliade wasn't the only one who took an interest in the matter, his ideas were bold and ultimately led him to a dangerous path, one that later would explain his affiliation to The Iron Guard, as Idel explains.
There was a curved cast iron guard over those knives to keep small boys' fingers out of the rotating knives.
The second factor that disrupted DHM activity was the tension between the Antonescu government and Romania's contribution to fascism, the Iron Guard. By January 1941, Antonescu decided that cooperation between his government and the leader of the Iron Guard, Horia Sima, was no longer possible and that the Iron Guard would have to be dealt with decisively.
They are put straight into the deep end with their first task, the gruelling iron guard marathon.
It is therefore interesting to compare it with, for example, the Romanian case of the Iron Guard, where religion (in this case, Orthodoxy) was a core component of the movement's identity.
The Accident was published in a country under rule of the anti-Semitic Iron Guard, and although the war is not mentioned directly it is impossible to read now without this shadow hanging over the novel.
But I faced a new surprise the following week, when, on the same TV program, the hostess was rather passive towards her guest, a militant journalist turned mercenary journalist, as he confessed his admiration for Corneliu Zelea Codreanu, the "Captain" of the Iron Guard, the far-right Orthodox terrorist organization of the pre-war years.
However desperate the Jews were before the invasion of the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941, they were even more panic-stricken afterwards, as more than 600,000 Jews were summarily massacred in the next few months in Lithuania, eastern Poland, Bukovina, and Bessarabia, while the Iron Guard commenced, literally, butchering Jews in Bucharest.
Hard to believe that thoughts of Romania's rusty "Iron Guard" would make Adolf tremble.
at Bloomington) is largely concerned with explaining the evolution of Cioran as a thinker from his youth to his triumph as a French writer, an evolution she sees as defined by dichotomies of east and west and by a cycle of identity crises for Cioran which explain his temporary devotion to the apocalyptic nationalism of the fascist Iron Guard of Romania and his later shift in focus from the nation to the self.
Ovidiu Comsia, a Moldovan disciple and member of the nationalist Iron Guard, replaced the Nazi "race" idea with the Romanian concept of neam, or "ethnicity"; hence the Antonescu regime's desire to create a country composed entirely of"ethnically pure" Romanians.