# Irreversible Process

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## irreversible process

[‚i·ri′vər·sə·bəl ′prä·səs]
(thermodynamics)
A process which cannot be reversed by an infinitesimal change in external conditions.
McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

## Irreversible Process

a physical process that can occur spontaneously only in one specific direction. Examples of such processes are diffusion, heat conduction, thermal diffusion, viscous flow, and gas expansion into a vacuum. All irreversible processes are nonequilibrium processes. An irreversible process in a closed system is accompanied by an increase in entropy. In open systems, which are capable of exchanging energy or matter with the surrounding medium, during irreversible processes the entropy may remain constant or even decrease owing to entropy exchange with the surrounding medium. In all cases, however, the production of entropy, that is, its increase in the system per unit time, remains positive because of the existence of irreversible processes.

Classical thermodynamics, which studies reversible, equilibrium processes, defines inequalities for irreversible processes; these inequalities determine the possible directions of the irreversible processes.

Irreversible processes are studied through the thermodynamics of nonequilibrium processes and the statistical theory of nonequilibrium processes. The thermodynamics of irreversible processes allows us (1) to obtain the increase of entropy in irreversible processes that occur in various systems as a function of parameters of the nonequilibrium state and (2) to derive equations that describe the time variations of these parameters, for example, diffusion equations, heat-conduction equations, and the Navier-Stokes equation for the hydrodynamics of a viscous fluid. The coefficients in these equations (kinetic coefficients) are regarded as phenomenological constants to be determined experimentally. The statistical theory of irreversible processes makes it possible to obtain expressions for the kinetic coefficients in terms of the molecular constants. Irreversible processes in gases have been studied most completely using the Boltzmann kinetic equation.

D. N. ZUBAREV

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Elaborate discussion of these two cases is important, as it allows the reader to question whether secularization is an irreversible process that every society has to go through in the same way, to what extent the experiences of Eastern European societies differ from that of the West in terms of secularization, and whether the revitalization of religion in post-communist societies and easing of tension between the state and religion pose a challenge to the secularization theory and secularization model that was foreseen by the communist regimes.
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Some evolutionary biologists have argued that specialization is a irreversible process 6 that once an organism developed special features, it could not turn back and assume a form seen in its ancestral history.
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In addition to being an irreversible process that has led to wrongful deaths, she also believes it does not deter criminals and goes against the belief that the "most important human right is the right to life."
In his address at the panel discussion entitled "The Challenges of the European Union in Southeast Europe," Minister Poposki stressed that the integration of the countries of the region into the European Union was an irreversible process and that the process of enlargement had to maintain its credibility with an appropriate and just evaluation of the individual achievements of every country.

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