Irving, Edward

Irving, Edward,

1792–1834, Scottish preacher, under whose influence the Catholic Apostolic ChurchCatholic Apostolic Church,
religious community originating in England c.1831 and extending later to Germany and the United States (1848). It was founded under the influence of Edward Irving; its members are sometimes called Irvingites.
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 was founded; its members have sometimes been called Irvingites. He was tutor to Jane Welsh, later the wife of Thomas CarlyleCarlyle, Thomas,
1795–1881, English author, b. Scotland. Early Life and Works

Carlyle studied (1809–14) at the Univ. of Edinburgh, intending to enter the ministry, but left when his doubts became too strong.
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, and became the friend of Carlyle. After serving as assistant (1819–22) to Thomas ChalmersChalmers, Thomas
, 1780–1847, Scottish preacher, theologian, and philanthropist, leader of the Free Church of Scotland. His preaching and his interest in philanthropic work during his ministry (1815–23) in Glasgow brought wide recognition.
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 in Glasgow, Irving was called to the Caledonian Church, London, where his oratory brought him great popularity; he and his congregation moved to the larger Regent Square Church in 1827. As his preaching began to emphasize the supernatural and the imminence of the second coming of Christ, criticism arose, especially over his views on the human nature of Christ. In 1832 he was debarred from the Regent Square Church; in 1833 he was deposed from the ministry of the Church of Scotland. Irving had, from 1826, been meeting with a group gathered together by Henry DrummondDrummond, Henry,
1786–1860, English banker, known particularly as one of the founders of the Catholic Apostolic Church. Beginning in 1826, he gathered annually for five years, at his home in Surrey, a group of laity and clergy to examine the prophecies in the Scriptures.
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 to study the prophecies of the Scriptures. From this "school of the prophets" was developed the Catholic Apostolic Church, of which Irving was an "angel," or bishop.


See biography by M. O. W. Oliphant (1864); H. C. Whitney, Blinded Eagle (1955).