woad

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woad,

name for a perennial plant (Isatis tinctoria) of the family Cruciferae (or Brassicaceae; mustardmustard,
common name for the Cruciferae, or Brassicaceae, a large family chiefly of herbs of north temperate regions. The easily distinguished flowers of the Cruciferae have four petals arranged diagonally ("cruciform") and alternating with the four sepals.
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 family) and for a blue dye obtained from its leaves. The plant is believed to be native to S Russia, but was in cultivation (and escaped) throughout Europe in early times. The pigment was obtained by fermentation and oxidation of a colorless glucoside, indican. Indican is also present in the leaves of the unrelated indigoindigo
[Span.; from Lat.,=Indian], important blue dyestuff used in printing inks and for vat dyeing of cotton (see dye). It was anciently produced in India and was known in Egypt, probably c.1600 B.C.
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, the other major blue vegetable dye plant. Although the dye obtained from indigo is superior in vividness of color, fastness, and ease of processing, woad growers and distributors of the Renaissance prohibited the sale of indigo in Europe for more than a century. In 1392 the Saxon town of Erfurt, Germany, had gained enough wealth through the woad trade to establish its own university. By the mid-17th cent., however, woad had been largely replaced by its successor—partly because of the low prices of indigo imports from the New World. Both woad and indigo have been eclipsed by the synthetic aniline dyes perfected in the late 19th cent. Woad was also extensively used for brilliant blue paint pigments. The ancients used it medicinally for ulcers and other ailments, and the early Britons painted their bodies with it. Woad is classified in the division MagnoliophytaMagnoliophyta
, division of the plant kingdom consisting of those organisms commonly called the flowering plants, or angiosperms. The angiosperms have leaves, stems, and roots, and vascular, or conducting, tissue (xylem and phloem).
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, class Magnoliopsida, order Capparales (or Brassicales), family Cruciferae (or Brassicaceae).

Bibliography

See J. B. Hurry, The Woad Plant and Its Dye (1930, repr. 1974).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Woad

 

(Isatis), a genus of plants of the family Cruciferae.

Woad is an annual or biennial, less commonly perennial herb with alternate leaves and yellow flowers. The fruit is a monospermous hanging silicle. There are about 60 species of woad in Asia and Europe and 37 species in the USSR growing on flooded meadows, steppes, and dry rocky slopes, primarily in the Caucasus and Middle Asia and less commonly in the steppe zone of the European USSR and in Western and Eastern Siberia. The most common species is Isatis tinctoria, whose leaves yield a dark blue coloring (indigo) used to dye cloth. Its fruits contain 30 percent fatty oil. It was once widely cultivated in Western Europe as a dye plant, but this almost stopped when indigo began to be produced synthetically. Sometimes woad, mainly Isatis emar-ginata, is grown for fodder.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

woad

a European plant, Isatis tinctoria, formerly cultivated for its leaves, which yield a blue dye: family Brassicaceae (crucifers)
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
In order to obtain the active compound with antidengue virus and lower cytotoxicity quickly and effectively, combinatorial methods of bioactive trace technology and phytochemical extraction and separation are employed, which guide the isolation and purification of the effective chemical constituents on the water-soluble components of aerial parts of Isatis tinctoria, and identify its structure.
Isatis tinctoria was purchased from Qiaocheng branch of the Bozhou herbs corporation in Anhui province, China.
Isolation of Components of Aerial Parts of Isatis tinctoria and Monomers.
John's wort (Hypericum perforatum) Anti-carcinogen * Dyer's woad (Isatis tinctoria) Circulatory stimulant * Ginger (Zingiber officinale) * Ginkgo {Ginkgo biloba) Depurative * Garlic (Allium sativum) * Grapefruit seed (Citrus x paradisi) Diaphoretic * Boxwood {Buxus sempervirens) Digestive carminative * Peppermint (Mentha x piperita) Expectorant * Hyssop (Hyssopus officinalis) Hepatoprotective * Greater celandine {Chelidonium majus) * Liquorice {Glycyrrhiza glabra)* * Milk thistle (Silybum marianum) * Also denotes anti-viral activity.
Keywords: Isatis tinctoria extract ITE Murine asthma model Allergic airway inflammation Airway hyperreactivity Immune response reduction Th2 response
The ITE extract was manufactured using supercritical carbon dioxide with leaves of cultivated Isatis tinctoria. Fresh leaves were dried on a band drier operating at 60[degrees]C and coarsely powdered with an SK 100 cross-beater mill (Retsch; Haan, Germany) equipped with a 2 mm sieve.
Isatis tinctoria extract reduces airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR)
The ITE extract prepared from leaves of Isatis tinctoria by supercritical carbon dioxide showed activities in murine model of allergic asthma using OVA challenge of OVA sensitized BALB/c mice.
Estas son: Azolla filiculoides, Azolla caroliniana, Castanea sativa, Celtis australis, Fallopia baldschuanica, Isatis tinctoria subsp.