Cardiomyopathy

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cardiomyopathy

[¦kärd·ē·ō‚mī′äp·ə·thē]
(medicine)

Cardiomyopathy

 

(myocardosis), a term often applied to a broad group of heart diseases; specifically, noninflammatory lesions of the heart muscle (myocardium) resulting from a disturbance in myocardial metabolism. Among the causes of cardiomyopathy are nutritional disorders (alimentary dystrophy and avitaminosis, for example); protein metabolism disorders in hepatic or renal insufficiency and podagra; disturbances of carbohydrate metabolism (diabetes mellitus) and electrolyte metabolism; and endocrine disorders such as those associated with thyrotoxicosis and with hypoxia in impairment of coronary circulation, anemia, and mountain sickness. Myocardosis may also be caused by overstraining the myocardium and by exogenous poisons, such as carbon monoxide and alcohol.

In many cases the patient has no specific symptoms in the early stages; however, there may be shortness of breath and disagreeable sensations in the heart. Cardiomyopathy is manifested by dull, distant heart sounds, electrocardiographic changes, systolic murmur, extrasystole, and, more rarely, other types of arrhythmia. Severe cardiomyopathy weakens the heart contractions and may cause cardiac insufficiency. The changes associated with cardiomyopathy are usually reversible and disappear with the elimination of the underlying disease.

The cure includes treatment of the underlying disease and administration of agents that improve metabolic processes in the myocardium.

REFERENCE

Kedrov, A. A. Bolezni myshtsy serdtsa. Leningrad, 1963.

N. R. PALEEV

References in periodicals archive ?
In ischemic heart disease, ischemic injury to cardiac muscle induced the inflammation and redox toxic reactions and the injury ran through every stage of ischemic cardiomyopathy. Copper might be involved in the redox toxic reaction [19].
These purified and expanded CPCs combined with small molecules and/or tissue engineering can be therapeutically transplanted into the damaged hearts of patients, such as those suffering from ischemic cardiomyopathy. Putative cellular mechanisms of cardiac regeneration by CPC-based therapy (right).
As an antiatherosclerotic drug atorvastatin can appreciably lower the incidence of cardiovascular disease and is extensively used in the secondary prevention of CAHD.1 However there are very few studies to evaluate other functions of atorvastatin except for blood lipid concentration reduction and the effect of different doses of atorvastatin usage that related to oxidative stress and cardiac function among ischemic Cardiomyopathy (ICM) patients.
* A review of the Ischemic Cardiomyopathy products under development by companies and universities/research institutes based on information derived from company and industry-specific sources.
(11.) Yu CM, Fung WH, Lin H, Zhang Q, Sanderson JE, Lau CP Predictors of left ventricular reverse remodeling after cardiac resynchronization therapy for heart failure secondary to idiopathic dilated or ischemic cardiomyopathy. Am J Cardiol 2003; 91: 684-8.
In particular, they suggest that early blockade of RAS could be beneficial in subjects with familial sarcoglycanopathies, or with ischemic cardiomyopathy even in the absence of manifested heart disease.
For example, evidence from MADIT II (the second Multicenter Automatic Defibrillator Implantation Trial) elevated the recommendation--that implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs) be used for primary prevention of sudden cardiac arrest in patients who have ischemic cardiomyopathy due to prior MI, have a left ventricular ejection fraction of less than 30%, and are New York Heart Association functional class I--from a class IIa recommendation ("it is reasonable") to a class I recommendation (it "should be performed/administered").
Primary dilated cardiomyopathy was found in 95 patients, whereas the other 53 patients suffered from secondary cardiomyopathy; of these, 38 had ischemic cardiomyopathy. A total of 22 patients were in functional New York Heart Association (NYHA) class I, 72 in class II, and 54 in class III-IV; the mean (SD) left ventricular ejection fraction was 31.4 (9.6)%.
Thoratec Corporation, Pleasanton, CA, announced that a 61-year old German man with ischemic cardiomyopathy became the first patient in Europe to be implanted with its HeartMate II left ventricular assist system.
C11 HED has been used in cardiac PET imaging to characterize SNS integrity and risk-stratify patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy considered for implantable cardiac defibrillators.
While heart failure is uncommon in this population, the differential diagnosis includes viral myocarditis, drug-induced cardiomyopathy, familial cardiomyopathies, cardiac sarcoidosis, congenital heart disease, and, even rarer, ischemic cardiomyopathy.
The CONCERT-HF trial is an ongoing study investigating the combination of MSCs and c-[kit.sup.+] cardiac stem cells in ischemic cardiomyopathy (NCT02501811), and is, interestingly, a trial that employs autologous bone marrow-derived MSCs.