Isidia

Isidia

 

outgrowths on the surface of a lichen thallus formed by the hyphae of a fungus; algae live between the hyphae. When dried, isidia break off easily and germinate on a new thallus of the lichen.

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Differing from Sticta arbuscula in the coriaceous thallus with the upper surface pubescent-arachnoid, the isidia having a tomentose stalk, and the cyphellae being smaller than 2 mm diam.
fuliginosa in the strongly branched, corymbose ('broccoliform') isidia and the lack of papillae on the cells of the basal membrane of the cyphellae.
Vital state was assessed by the presence of necrotic spots, obvious deformation of thalli, and by the presence of reproductive structures on the thalli (soredia, isidia, and apothecia).
Unfortunately, this specimen, with globose isidia and apothecia sunken in lobes, is too small to identify to the species level.
Lichinella nigritella is a cyanobacterial lichen characterised by a foliosefruticose thallus with deeply branched, erect, [+ or -] strap-like lobes usually densely covered by globose isidia; fruiting bodies are rarely formed.
Thallus whitish to greenish grey, rugose, rimose-areolate to areolate, continuous, 0.2-0.5 mm thick, soredia and isidia lacking.
Thallus yellow to brownish yellow, smooth to rugose, continuous, rimose to areolate, 0.5-1.5 mm thick, soredia and isidia lacking.
Thallus without isidia or soredia; medulla C- Punctelia bolliana 1.
We consider as "asexual" reproduction both vegetative (isidia and soredia) and asexual reproduction (picnidia).
Both soredia and isidia can be easily detached from the thallus and dispersed.
The entirely laminal soredia, arising from the breakdown of the upper cortex or isidia, and the lack of colorless hairs and pruinosity generally separate it from the Rocky Mountain M.
Spores of many fungi, lichens, and mosses, asexual diaspores of lichens (soredia and isidia) and thallus fragments of cyanobacteria are 1-50 [[micro]meter] in diameter and can be dispersed as components of aerosols (Akers et al., 1979) and carried by winds for thousands of kilometers.