Islamic State

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Islamic State

(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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 that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state. IS is mainly active in Iraq and Syria, but has stated a goal of extending its reach to other countries in the E Mediterranean. Its origins lie in Al-Tawhid wa al-Jihad, founded after the U.S. invasion of Iraq (2003) and headed by Abu Musab al-ZarqawiZarqawi, Abu Musab al-
, nom de guerre of Ahmad Fadhil Nazzar al-Khalaylah, 1966–2006, Islamic terrorist leader, b. Jordan. Becoming a militant Islamist in his early 20s after several years as a mostly petty criminal, he traveled to Afghanistan in 1989 to join the
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. The group mounted terror attacks, including videotaped beheadings and suicide bombings, against U.S. forces and Shiites in Iraq and also conducted attacks in Jordan. In 2004 Zarqawi publicly aligned with Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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, and the group became known as Al Qaeda in Iraq. Zarqawi was killed in 2006. The Islamic State in Iraq was then formed by the group and other militant Sunni Islamists, but U.S.-led operations weakened it. In 2010 Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi became its leader. He revived its terrorist activities and turned it into a significant military force whose members included former officers from Saddam HusseinHussein, Saddam
, 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath party, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's prime minister; in Egypt he attended law school.
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's army.

The group expanded into Syria after the outbreak (2011) of civil war, seized significant territory there, and renamed itself (2013) the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL); it was also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). In 2014 it seized significant territory in N Iraq, routing poorly led Iraqi forces and securing large quantities of arms. The group also broke with Al Qaeda, renamed itself the Islamic State, and proclaimed a caliphate headed by Baghdadi. Within territory it controls, the group's tactics since its resurgence have been especially brutal, including videotaped beheadings, the slaughtering of captured enemy forces and of civilians regarded as infidels, forced conversions and enslavements, and the destruction of mosques, churches, and shrines, archaeological ruins, and artifacts and books it considers un-Islamic. IS has also been accused of using chemical weapons several times.

A number of Islamic militant groups formerly aligned with Al Qaeda realigned with IS, and IS's successes led to an influx of foreign Muslims into its ranks. Boko HaramBoko Haram
[Western education is sinful], Nigerian Islamic fundamentalist militia, officially Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad [people committed to the propagation of the Prophet's teachings and jihad]. It arose (c.
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 and some former Pakistani Taliban in Afghanistan allied themselves with IS in 2015, and that year IS also established a presence in Surt (Sirte), Libya, and claimed responsibility for a series of terror attacks in Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and other countries. At the same time, the group's successes in Iraq led to air strikes by the United States against IS forces beginning in Aug., 2014, at first in Iraq, but later in Syria as well, and the subsequent creation of an informal international military coalition to defeat IS. IS has since suffered significant setbacks in parts of N Syria and N and central Iraq (including the loss of Mosul), but it also has conducted or inspired an increased number of terror attacks around the world and in parts of Iraq not under its control. Since late 2015 terrorists associated with IS have bombed a Russian charter plane over the Sinai peninsula and mounted deadly terror attacks in Beirut, Paris, Brussels, and elsewhere.


See studies by J. Stern and J. M. Berger (2015), J. Warrick (2015), M. Weiss and H. Hassan (2015), and F. A. Gerges (2016).

References in periodicals archive ?
Notions, therefore, of an American-Russian coalition against the Islamic State are as undesirable as they are glib.
French President Francois Hollande and Putin agreed during talks in Moscow on Thursday to exchange intelligence on Islamic State and other rebel groups to improve the effectiveness of their aerial bombing campaigns in Syria.
In the meantime, the Islamic State has made the"One Iraq" policy obsolete.
Not only that, but if we'd bombed Assad's forces a year ago we could help more now, by bombing those who had helped Islamic State, such as us, and bomb ourselves.
That's not to irritate David Cameron, who would prefer I refer to it as Isil, which stands for Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant.
Islamic State for the very first time appeared with exclusively use of violence in Iraq.
This time Mr Brooke, a former archaeologist, is on a mission to find out what foreign aid and military resources the Iraqi and Syrian Kurds need to resist Islamic State invaders.
The answer is: In the aftermath of the destruction of the Islamic State, the United States should maintain its training efforts to create Iraqi Security Forces competent to suppress the resurgence of the Islamic State, without the future need for US ground forces.
In a surprising burst of candor, Obama recently admitted he does "not yet have a complete strategy" to defeat the Islamic State militants who continue to pose a grave risk to the region despite 10 months of U.
Speaking after the coalition met in Paris, he said there had been a great deal of progress in the fight against Islamic State but that the group remained resilient and capable of taking the initiative.
From Iraq to Syria, then from Libya across to Tunisia and then down to Nigeria and Mali, the Islamic State poses a serious security threat to the stability of these countries.
Much of the discussion of the Islamic State lacks nuance and a respect for the complexity of the political and religious situation.

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