Islamic State


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Islamic State

(IS), Sunni Islamic militant group committed to the establishment of an Islamic caliphatecaliphate
, the rulership of Islam; caliph , the spiritual head and temporal ruler of the Islamic state. In principle, Islam is theocratic: when Muhammad died, a caliph [Arab.,=successor] was chosen to rule in his place.
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 that would unite Muslims in a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state. IS has been mainly active in Iraq and Syria, but has stated a goal of extending its reach to other countries in the E Mediterranean. Its origins lie in Al-Tawhid wa al-Jihad, founded after the U.S. invasion of Iraq (2003) and headed by Abu Musab al-ZarqawiZarqawi, Abu Musab al-
, nom de guerre of Ahmad Fadhil Nazzar al-Khalaylah, 1966–2006, Islamic terrorist leader, b. Jordan. Becoming a militant Islamist in his early 20s after several years as a mostly petty criminal, he traveled to Afghanistan in 1989 to join the
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. The group mounted terror attacks, including videotaped beheadings and suicide bombings, against U.S. forces and Shiites in Iraq and also conducted attacks in Jordan. In 2004 Zarqawi publicly aligned with Al QaedaAl Qaeda
or Al Qaida
[Arab.,=the base], Sunni Islamic terrorist organization with the stated goals of uniting all Muslims and establishing a transnational, strict-fundamentalist Islamic state.
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, and the group became known as Al Qaeda in Iraq. Zarqawi was killed in 2006. The Islamic State in Iraq was then formed by the group and other militant Sunni Islamists, but U.S.-led operations weakened it. In 2010 Abu Bakr al-BaghdadiBaghdadi, Abu Bakr al-,
nom de guerre of Awwad Ibrahim Ali al-Badri al-Samarrai, 1971–2019, Iraqi jihadist leader. Following the U.S. invasion of Iraq in 2003, he helped found a Sunni militia.
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 became its leader. He revived its terrorist activities and turned it into a significant military force whose members included former officers from Saddam HusseinHussein, Saddam
, 1937–2006, Iraqi political leader. A member of the Ba'ath party, he fled Iraq after participating (1959) in an assassination attempt on the country's prime minister; in Egypt he attended law school.
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's army.

The group expanded into Syria after the outbreak (2011) of civil war, seized significant territory there, and renamed itself (2013) the Islamic State in Iraq and the Levant (ISIL); it was also known as the Islamic State in Iraq and Syria (ISIS). In 2014 it seized significant territory in N and W Iraq, routing poorly led Iraqi forces, securing large quantities of arms, and establishing control over roughly a third of Iraq. The group also broke with Al Qaeda, renamed itself the Islamic State, and proclaimed a caliphate headed by Baghdadi. Within territory it controlled, the group's tactics were especially brutal, including videotaped beheadings, the slaughtering of captured enemy forces and of civilians regarded as infidels, forced conversions and enslavements, and the destruction of mosques, churches, and shrines, archaeological ruins, and artifacts and books it considers un-Islamic. IS also has been accused of using chemical weapons.

A number of Islamic militant groups formerly aligned with Al Qaeda realigned with IS, and IS's successes led to an influx of foreign Muslims into its ranks. Boko HaramBoko Haram
[Western education is sinful], Nigerian Islamic fundamentalist militia, officially Jama'atu Ahlis Sunna Lidda'awati Wal-Jihad [people committed to the propagation of the Prophet's teachings and jihad]. It arose (c.
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 and some former Pakistani Taliban in Afghanistan allied themselves with IS in 2015. IS also established a presence in Libya, where they controlled Surt (Sirte; 2015–16). At the same time, the group's successes in Iraq led to air strikes by the United States against IS forces beginning in Aug., 2014, at first in Iraq, but later in Syria as well, and the subsequent creation of an informal international military coalition to defeat IS. IS subsequently suffered significant setbacks in Iraq and Syria, losing all of the territory it once controlled by the end of 2017 and early 2019, respectively. Forced into hiding in largely uninhabited areas, it has turned increasingly to guerrilla terror attacks in those nations. In 2019 al-Baghdadi killed himself during a U.S. raid on his hideout; Abu Ibrahim al-Hashemi al-Qurayshi succeeded him as IS leader. IS also has conducted or inspired an increased number of terror attacks around the world and in parts of Iraq not under its control. Since late 2015 terrorists associated with IS have bombed a Russian charter plane over the Sinai peninsula and mounted deadly terror attacks in Beirut, Paris, Brussels, Saudi Arabia, and elsewhere.

Bibliography

See studies by J. Stern and J. M. Berger (2015), J. Warrick (2015), M. Weiss and H. Hassan (2015), and F. A. Gerges (2016).

References in periodicals archive ?
According to a military report, the Islamic State carried out the ambush along the Hirak-Izraa Road; this resulted in the death of one soldier.
The video shows that the NTJ terrorist organization took inspirations from Islamic state's barbaric ideology wearing new matching garments in front of a newish looking acquired Islamic state banner.
The Islamic State West Africa Province follows the same leader as the Middle Eastern version, Abu-Bakr al-Baghdadi, and is hoping to make up for the loss of territory the group suffered in Syria and Iraq.
It then examines how the Islamic State has expanded its operations inside Somalia and the group's emergent links to international terrorism, before examining how the ISS' growing assertiveness set the stage for a renewal of conflict with al-Shabaab in late 2018.
SDF official Mustafa Bali said a large group of Islamic State fighters and their families had surrendered en masse.
Presidential Spokesman Salvador Panelo admitted that alleged recruitment of the Islamic State of militants in the south was a cause for concern for the government.
US-backed Syrian forces' advances against Islamic State militants in their last pocket in eastern Syria were slowed on Monday due to snipers and mines in the area, a Kurdish commander said.
We have a 600 km (400 mile) border with Syria and Daesh (Islamic State) is there,' Abdul Mahdi said.
"This strike killed these terrorists who presented an imminent threat, and eliminated another deadly ISIS (Islamic State) operational capability from the battlefield," the US military said in a statement.
The Islamic State was born in an American Prison Camp, Bucca in Iraq.
The long reportage is appended with 'Highlights: (a) 'The Islamic State and likely Pakistan elements are actively murdering them, report various credible news agencies' (It doesn't say which agencies)?
Central Command, which oversees military operations in the Middle East, marked the deactivation of the command in Baghdad with a ceremony, calling the event an acknowledgment of the "changing composition and responsibilities of the coalition" the United States assembled nearly four years ago to destroy the Islamic State.

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