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Miller, one of Jordan's colleagues at USC, reported in Geophysical Research Letters detecting boundaries in the keels that suggest that island arcs smashed into cratons, piling up against them over time.
The belts are composed of volcanic island arc, back-arc sedimentary basin, and (granitoid-rich) microcontinent-type of terrains, amalgamated in the course of the active margin of Svecofennian ocean around 1.
88 Ga dated latitudinally extending Fennian orogenic suites form the Tampere, Mine, and Uusimaa volcanic-sedimentary belts of island arc origin in southern Finland (Korja et al.
Pinet and Tremblay (1995) proposed that emplacement of the Quebec ophiolites was caused by the collision of an island arc with the North American continent during the Ordovician.
Shoshonitic volcanic suites are common in island arc volcanism and have been identified in the New Guinea Highlands (Mackenzie and Chappell 1972) and in Eastern New Guinea, including the offshore D'Entrecasteaux Island group (Jakes and Smith 1970; Smith 1972; Johnson et al.
Shoshonite occurs in association with calc--alkaline volcanism in intra-arc rift settings, in intra-oceanic island arcs and backarc basins, (Sun and Stern 2001; Adams et al.
Collision of major crustal features such as continents and island arcs is considered to be a principal cause of orogenesis that normally results in building mountain chains and thickening the crust.
Hoffman proposes that mantle convection swept the microcontinents and island arcs toward an area where cold mantle material was sinking.
As the seafloor spreads and collides with continents and other ocean plates at island arcs, old crust is also continuously destroyed--overridden and mixed back into Earth's mantle at subduction zones.
Volcanism during the first 10 million years of these arcs had characteristics intermediate between modern spreading centers and island arcs.
The rising water induces the melting of rocks, which eventually results in volcanoes called island arcs.