Isooctane


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

isooctane

[¦ī·sō′äk‚tān]
(organic chemistry)
(CH3)2CHCH2C(CH3)3 Flammable, colorless liquid boiling at 99°C; slightly soluble in alcohol and ether, insoluble in water; used in motor fuels and as a chemical intermediate.

Isooctane

 

2,2,4-trimethylpentane, the saturated aliphatic hydrocarbon C(CH3)3—CCH2—CH(CH3)2.

Isooctane is a transparent colorless liquid with a gasoline odor. Melting point, - 107.38°C; boiling point, 99.24°C; density, 0.69192 g/cm3 (20°C); nD20, 1.39145; heat of combustion, 5.463 megajoules per mole, or 1,305.29 kilocalories per mole (25°C; p = const); heat of vaporization, 307.63 joules per g, or 73.50 calories per g (25°C). Isooctane is insoluble in water but soluble in ordinary organic solvents. It forms azeotropes (for example, with benzene, methanol, and ethanol). The knock rating of isooctane is assigned an octane number of 100.

Straight-run gasolines contain small amounts of isooctane along with other octane isomers. Industrially, isooctane is made by hydrogenating diisobutylene over a catalyst (for example, copper-chromium) or by alkylating isobutane with isobutylene in the presence of concentrated H2S04, A1C13, BF3, or other catalysts. Isooctane is used (as an additive) in making aviation gasolines, which must have excellent antiknock properties.

References in periodicals archive ?
Firstly, 1 mL of C23:0 internal standard (IS) at a concentration of 1 mg/mL in isooctane was added to an aliquot of fish oil of roughly 20 mg.
AOT (0.06 g/mL) was dispersed in isooctane (200 mL) in the conical flask and oscillated at room temperature.
The primary chemicals in this research were potassium hydroxide, ethanol, isooctane, n-hexane, and the others which were purchased from Merck (Germany) with purification more than 95%.
Next, he obtained the constant C=0.065 and n=0.8 in (1) from the experimental results of Kutateladze and Schneiderman [2] for water (1-3 atm), alcohol (1-10 atm), and isooctane (1 atm).
Figure 11 shows the DDT time of the heptane and isooctane. Isooctane is difficult to be detonated and is lower than the stable CJ (Chapman-Jouget) wave velocity.
For that, 0.4 g oil sample was dissolved in 4 mL isooctane, and then methyl esterified in 0.2 mL 2 M potassium hydroxide.
*FAM-A: Toluene (50 volume %) + isooctane (30 volume %) + di-isobutylene (15 volume %) + ethanol (5 volume %).
The extracted FAME was mixed with acetyl chloride; 200 uL, 6% potassium carbonate; 8 mL, benzene:methanol (1:4, vol/vol); 2 mL and isooctane; 1 mL and, centrifuged at 1,500 rpm for 10 min.
M2 EQUITYBITES-February 15, 2017-Gevo announces commercial supply of isooctane under LOI with HCS
Cobalt(II) 2-ethylhexanoate ([C.sub.16][H.sub.30]Co[O.sub.4], 65wt% solution in mineral spirits), isooctane ([C.sub.8][H.sub.18], CHROMASOLV[R] Plus for HPLC, [greater than or equal to] 99.5%), tetramethylammonium hydroxide pentahydrate TMAH ([C.sub.4][H.sub.13]NO x 5[H.sub.2]O, [greater than or equal to] 97%), and ammonium hydroxide N[H.sub.4]OH ([H.sub.5]NO, solution 28.0-30.0%) were purchased from Sigma-Aldrich.