Isoprenoids


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Isoprenoids

 

a large class of natural compounds formed in organisms from mevalonic acid. The latter is converted in the microsomes of the cells into “five-carbon fragments” with an isoprene skeleton. The biosynthesis of isoprenoids is a process of consecutive linking (condensation) of such five-carbon units into chains of various lengths. The doubling, cyclization, oxidation, reduction, and regrouping of such chains accounts for the extraordinary structural diversity of isoprenoids. The isoprenoids include terpenes and their derivatives, sterols, steroids, carote-noids, xanthophylls, and the polyisoprenoids—natural rubber and gutta-percha. A number of isoprenoids have great biological significance—many hormones of animals, plants, and lower organisms; certain vitamins; antibiotics; and attractants.

REFERENCES

Biosintez lipidov. Moscow, 1962.
Kosover, E. Molekuliarnaia biokhimiia. Moscow, 1964. (Translated from English.)
Biokhimiia rastenii. Moscow, 1968. (Translated from English.)
References in periodicals archive ?
Troschke et al., "Reconstitution of an apicoplast-localised electron transfer pathway involved in the isoprenoid biosynthesis of Plasmodium falciparum," FEBS Letters, vol.
Interestingly, [C.sub.16]-[C.sub.23] aryl isoprenoids were detected from extracts from solid bitumen from wells HB101, LG82, and YB101 in the western gas fields (Figure 5).
The first target molecules are part of the isoprenoid family (including carotenoids) that may lead to the production of specialty ingredients, such as antioxidants and / or high-added value pigments, representing a market of hundreds of millions of dollars worldwide in applications such as cosmetics, food, feed and health.
In overcast skies the contribution of diffuse radiation to emission of isoprenoids may be even larger and exceed the contribution of direct radiation.
Regulatory mechanism of HMGS in plants: HMGS participates in the synthesis of precursors of isoprenoids and provides reactive substrates for HMGR.
Burke, Y.D., Stark, M.J., Roach, S.L., Sen, S.E., Crowell, P.L., 1997, Inhibition of pancreatic cancer growth by the dietary isoprenoids farnesol and geraniol.
This may be explained by the antioxidant effects of simvastatin, as a result of inhibition of mevalonate pathway causing a significant reduction in the biosynthesis of important intermediates, like isoprenoids, which act as a lipid attachment/anchoring for intracellular signaling molecules, particularly the inhibition of the small GTPase binding proteins whose proper membrane localization and function are dependent on isoprenylation.
A good example is Amyris Biotechnolgies, founded in 2003, which has been working on a class of hydrocarbons called isoprenoids as a substitute for petrol.
Biosynthesis of isoprenoids (carotenoids, sterols, prenyl side-chains of chlorophylls and plastoquinone) via a novel pyruvate/glyceraldehydes 3-phosphate non-mevalonate pathway in the green alga Scenedesmus obliquus.
Scientists and engineers in biochemistry, biotechnology, and related fields survey developments and prospects for producing biofuel molecules such as hydrogen, methane, ethanol, butanol, higher chain alcohols, isoprenoids, and fatty acid derivatives by metabolically engineered microbes such as bacteria, yeast, and microalgae.
Goettingen, Germany, August 31, 2014 --(PR.com)-- Isoprenoids in living organisms range in function from pigments and fragrances to vitamins and precursors of sex hormones.
Many organisms, including the parasite that causes malaria, make a class of molecules called isoprenoids, which play multiple roles in keeping organisms healthy, whether plants, animals or bacteria.