Istria

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Istria

(ĭs`trēə), Croatian Istra, mountainous peninsula c.1,500 sq mi (3,900 sq km), in Slovenia and Croatia, projecting into the N Adriatic between the gulfs of Trieste and Fiume. A section of the northwestern portion, including the city of Trieste, belongs to Italy. The area is thickly forested and is predominantly agricultural. PulaPula
, Ital. Pola, city (2011 pop. 57,460), W Croatia, on the Adriatic and at the southern tip of the Istrian peninsula. A major seaport and an industrial center, it has shipyards, docks, and varied manufactures. Captured (178 B.C.
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 is the chief city and a shipbuilding center. The population is about two thirds Croatian. Istria was inhabited by Illyrian tribes when it passed (2d cent. B.C.) to Rome. It remained under nominal Byzantine rule until the 8th cent. A.D. By that time, Slavs had settled in the rural areas and Italians in the cities. By the 15th cent. Austria and Venice had absorbed, respectively, the northeastern and southwestern parts of the region. The Treaty of Campo Formio (1797) and the Congress of Vienna (1815) added the Venetian part to Austria. In 1919 all Istria passed to Italy, but the Italian peace treaty of 1947 gave most of it to Yugoslavia. The northwestern section passed to Italy in 1954; under the 1975 Osimo Treaty, Italy gave up claims to coastal lands south of Trieste.

Istria

 

an ancient Greek city on the western shore of the Black Sea, in what is now Rumania. Istria was founded by the Milesians in the second half of the seventh century B.C. The inhabitants were farmers, fishermen, and craftsmen and engaged in trading with the neighboring Getae-Thracian and Scythian tribes. It achieved its greatest development in the sixth and fifth centuries B.C. Archaeological finds bear witness to the developed trade relations with the cities of the eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea regions. In the middle of the first century B.C., Istria was ravaged by the Getae, and in 27 B.C. it became part of the Roman Empire. Destroyed by the Goths in the third century A.D., Istria was again restored and existed until the seventh century. By this time, as a result of sand alluvium, the city no longer had an outlet to the sea and thus lost its significance as a trade center. It gradually became deserted.

Excavations have been carried out with interruptions since 1914. Remains of defense walls (fourth century B.C.), temples, particularly the Temple of Aphrodite (fifth century B.C.), thermae (third-fourth century), and dwellings have been uncovered. Istria is an archaeological preserve.

REFERENCES

Konduraki, E. Istriia. Bucharest, 1962.
Blavatskaia, T.V. Zapadnopontiiskie goroda v 7–1 vv. do n.e. Moscow, 1952.

I. T. KRUGLIKOVA

Istria

a peninsula in the N Adriatic Sea: passed from Italy to Yugoslavia (except for Trieste) in 1947 and to Croatia in 1991
References in periodicals archive ?
A month later, in the Treaty of Rapallo of 12 November 1920, Italy and the new Yugoslavian kingdom ratified their own borders, allowing Italy to receive all coastal lands once held by the Austrians (the Kustenland, including the city of Trieste and the Istrian peninsula) as well as 450 square kilometers of broader Carinthia at the extreme northeastern corner of Italy (now part of the autonomous region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia).
The bridges of its tourist ferries point--like the pier and Dora's own hand--toward the 'destiny' and 'legend' of many towns on the Istrian peninsula, towns that at the time of the poem were politically and demographically still predominantly Italian.
Given that in this great Balkan peninsula of the Mediterranean one group or other inevitably claims priority of origin, there are even other Dora-subjects living in a time closer to the one in which Montale began his poem: the Istrian and Dalmatian Italians who felt they existed in political exile before 1918 because their territory had not yet hauled down the flag of Austria or Hungary.
At a 1920 rally of the border fascists in the Istrian town of Pola, Benito Mussolini declared, 'In political dealings with a race as inferior and barbaric as the Slavs, one should not use carrots but only sticks .
In Yugoslavia schools had been systematically established for the whole Istrian territory (both Slovene and Croatian), usually with different programmes in different locations.
Izola, however, does not fall below the Slovene average in terms of education levels, but only under the average of the southern Littoral-Karst region, and particularly under the average of the Istrian area.
The Italian Union's predecessor in the former Yugoslavia was called the Italian Union of the Istrian District and Rijeka.
The identity of the Italian minority in Slovenia is rather like a collection of things in small portions: Istrian according to the place they live, Italian by ethnic identity, Slovene by citizenship, and now European as well.
However, it can be difficult to harmonise numerous identities, and the identity of the Italian minority in Slovenia is rather like a collection of things in small portions: Istrian in accordance to the place they live, Italian by ethnic identity, Slovene by citizenship, and European now as well.