Italici

Italici

 

a group of Indo-European tribes in ancient Italy who spoke Italic languages. The Italici were divided into two branches: Latin-Faliscan, which included the Faliscans, Latini, Aurunci, and Aenotrians (the Siculi probably also belonged to this branch), and Osco-Umbrian-Sabellian, which consisted of the Umbri, Osci (Samnites, Sabini, Aequi, and Volsci), and Sabellians (Marsi, Marrucini, Frentani, and Vestini). The Italici were at different stages of socioeconomic and cultural development: the greatest development was made by the Latini, who in the sixth century B.C. were mainly at the stage of early class states.

In the 19th century, scholars maintained the notion that the Italici came across the Alps to the Apennine Peninsula in the second millennium B.C., bringing with them metal culture (the Italian scholar L. Pigorini regarded the Italici as the creators of the bronze and iron cultures in the territory of Italy). The Russian scholar V.I. Modestov and the Italian researcher G. Devoto assumed that the Italici migrated from Central Europe in two waves: the Proto-Latins, who created the Ter-ramara culture early in the second millennium B.C., and the ancestors of the Umbri and Sabellians, creators of the Villanovan culture, late second and early first millennium B.C. Italian historians are now of the opinion that the ancient cultures of Italy developed continuously and in succession from the Neolithic to the Iron Age, regardless of the migrations (G. Patroni, P. Orsi, and U. Rellini); that sporadic migrations of Indo-European tribes from the Balkan Peninsula across the Adriatic occurred early in the second millennium B.C.; and that the tribes spread over the Apennine Peninsula from the west to the east, north, and south (the Italian archaeologist M. Pallottino).

The term “Italici” is also used as the general name for all the tribes that inhabited the Apennine Peninsula and were subjugated by Rome in the fifth to third centuries B.C. The Italici were granted Roman citizenship after the Civil War (early first century B.C.); they underwent Romanization in the first century B.C.

REFERENCES

Modestov, V.I. Vvedenie v rimskuiu istoriiu, parts 1–2. St. Petersburg, 1902–04.
Nemirovskii, A.I. Istoriia rannego Rima i Italii. Voronezh, 1962.
Altheim, F. Italien und Rom, vol. 1. Amsterdam-Leipzig [1941].
Devoto, G. “Altitalien.” In Historia mundi, vol. 3. Bern, 1954.

I. L. MAIAK

References in classic literature ?
Virtu contro al Furore Prendera l'arme, e fia il combatter corto: Che l'antico valore Negli italici cuor non e ancor morto.
Ugualmente, si puo fare l'ipotesi che a tale coorte di conoscitori del latino si possa preminentemente riferire quell'area di 'italici' di cui parla Bassetti (2015) intendendo tutti coloro che, sia pur non italiani, vedono nella cultura e lingua italiana un proprio riferimento valoriale.
Anche Scotellaro, ex humili potens, in concomitanza con il conterraneo Sinisgalli, (9) fa della sua poesia un monumentum piu duraturo del bronzo e anche di lui si dira, non sull'Ofanto, ma sul Basento, che ha portato la lira eolica in versi veramente italici. Basta rileggere la piu celebre tra le poesie scotellariane, Sempre nuova e l'alba (67), anch'essa datata 1949 (ma anche l'antecedente Pioggia (65) del 1946 v.
The narrative suggests that this report is credited "per che molti italici tornarono con questa novella, tra' quali furon de' si presuntuosi che ardiron di dire se averlo veduto morto e essere stati alla sepoltura" (10.9.62).
(16) Similar statements are made by the Pole Stanislaw Orzechowski, who commented on the events of 1552 (he says that Romanians are the descendants of Roman Italians, that in their language they call themselves Romini, from Romanis, and in Polish they are called Wloszy, meaning Italici) (17); by the Frenchman Pierre Lescalopier, who traveled across Transylvania in August of 1574 (according to him, the Romanians see themselves as the true successors of the Romans and they call their language romanechte, that is, romain=Roman) (18); by the anonymous author of a 1587 description of Moldavia, dispatched there as a missionary (these people prefer the name Romano, believing that they are descended from the Romani and call themselves Romani).