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A CPU family from Intel designed to supersede Intel's x86-based servers. Although an advanced hardware architecture, and even with HP as its major supporter, Itanium gained only a fraction of the server market dominated by the x86 line. In addition, the compilers necessary to take full advantage of Itanium's elaborate architecture were never fully developed. By the time Itanium gained ground in the early 2000s, there were too many x86 servers running worldwide, and x86 performance was improving.

HP-UX (HP's Unix) and several other Unix versions run on Itanium; however, in the 2010 time frame, the Itanium versions of Windows Server, Red Hat Linux and Ubuntu Linux were given end of life.

x86 Kept Advancing
After 64-bit Itanium chips were introduced in 2001, Intel upgraded its x86 CPUs to 64 bits, and over the years added advanced security and fault detection features into high-end x86 Xeon chips. See Intel 64 and Xeon.

Native, x86 and HP PA-RISC Apps
Itaniums run native applications and emulate x86 and HP PA-RISC apps. x86 programs are executed in hardware or in software (see IA-32 Execution Layer). HP PA-RISC apps are translated in software (see Aries). For more on the Itanium architecture, see IA-64.

 Model           Process  Max.  Year   Tech.  Clock  Max.Code Name  Intro  (nm)   Speed  CoresItanium
 Merced     2001   180  800 MHz   1

 Itanium 2
 McKinley   2002   180  1.0 GHz   1
 Madison    2003   130  1.6 GHz   1
 Deerfield  2003   130  1.0 GHz   1
 Hondo      2004   130  1.1 GHz   1
 Fanwood    2004   130  1.6 GHz   1
 Madison    2004   130  1.7 GHz   1

 Montecito  2006    90  1.6 GHz   2
 Montvale   2007    90  1.7 GHz   2

 Itanium 9300
 Tukwila    2010    65  1.7 GHz   4

 Itanium 9500
 Poulson    2013    32  2.5 GHz   8
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Rank 34 Customer Kyoto University System name T2K Open Supercomputer (HX600 Technical Computing Server) CPU/architecture Quad-core AMD Opteron (AMD64) Performance 15.090 teraflops[1] Efficiency 82.49% Rank 172 Customer Kyushu University System name Supercomputer System (PRIMERGY RX200 S3 PC Server) CPU/architecture Quad-core AMD Opteron (AMD64) Performance 15.090 teraflops Efficiency 81.87% Rank 335 Customer Kyushu University System name Supercomputer System (PRIMEQUEST 580 Mission Critical IA Server) CPU/architecture Intel Itanium2 (IPF) Performance 10.850 teraflops Efficiency 82.78%
It is available in three models and incorporates a dual-core Intel Itanium2 processor and NEC's A3 chipset and reportedly achieves a performance that is 2.2 times greater than the company's existing product.
By switching to 1U servers, it was assumed that the current Itanium2 processors would be used, meaning that the computational capacity of 11.232 TFlops would be achieved with 15 fewer racks of servers.
Table 5.4 shows the speedup of PARDISO using SBK on a SGI Altix 3700/BX2 with 8 Intel Itanium2 processors with 1.6 GHz and we report on the factorization speedup for the larger IPOPT matrices.
CPMD has been certified to run on many architectures including 32-bit Intel clusters of PCs, SGI's Altix 3000 family of global shared-memory, 64-bit Itanium2, and high performance compute servers.
Intel's Itanium2 processor is capable of running more than one operating system at the same time - a process called partitioning - so that in the event of an application or operating system failure, the other operating environment still carries on.
"Unisys, long a price/performance leader in high-end Intel processor-based systems, is continuing this trend by bringing true enterprise class functionality to the Linux environment, to large scale multiprocessing systems based on both Intel Xeon processors MP and Itanium2 processors."
The machine packs four 1.5GHz Itanium2 processors into a 4U rack-mounted chassis, each with 6MB of L3 cache memory.
Named "redwood," the new SGI Model 3700 Altix high performance compute server with 64 Itanium2 processors, 64 Gigabytes memory, and 2.336 Terabytes fiber channel disk system serves as a capability resource for researchers who have particularly high performance codes and calculations that cannot be run efficiently on other MCSR supercomputers or clusters.
Type of processor and speed used: Intel Itanium2 1.5GHz, 6MB L3 cache