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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



the capital of the Khazar state from the eighth to the tenth century, located 15 km above present-day Astrakhan on the banks of the Itil’ River (Volga) and on a small island. Its inhabitants included Khazars, Turks, Slavs, and Jews. The population engaged in livestock raising, agriculture, fishing, handicrafts, and trade. The palace of the kagan was located in Itil’, and the city also had temples, schools, baths, and bazaars. Dwellings consisted of wooden tents, felt yurts, and pit houses. In 965 the Kievan prince Sviatoslav Igorevich destroyed Itil’.


Artamonov, M. I. Istoriia khazar. Leningrad, 1962.



in medieval Arabic and Persian literature, the Volga River. Tatars, Bashkirs, Chuvashes, and several other Turkic-speaking peoples still refer to the Volga as the Itil’ River.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.


(Information Technology Infrastructure Library, One of the more comprehensive as well as non-proprietary and publicly available sets of guidelines for "best practice" IT services management, owned by the British Office of Government Commerce (OGC). Each library module provides a code of practice intended to improve IT efficiencies, reduce risks and increase the effectiveness and quality of IT services management and infrastructure.

In the late 1980s, the library was conceived by the Central Computer and Telecommunications Agency (CCTA) of the British government. Although ITIL services and training were popular in Europe, it took more than a decade before they were introduced to the U.S. private sector by a number of consulting firms such as Andersen Consulting, Ernst & Young, Hewlett-Packard (HP), Pink Elephant and Price Waterhouse Coopers. ITIL certification examinations are available through EXIN in the Netherlands.
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