(from 1905 to 1946, Toyohara), a city and administrative center of Sakhalin Oblast, RSFSR. Situated in the southeastern part of the island of Sakhalin, on the Susuia River. Junction of railroad lines to Korsakov, Kholmsk, and Poronaisk. Population, 134,000 (1977).
Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk has a machine-repair plant, a plant for the repair of diesel locomotives and railroad cars, a machine shop, an experimental machine-repair plant, a motor-vehicle repair plant, the Sakhalinzhelezobeton plant (reinforced concrete), the Stroidetal’ plant (construction components), the Sakhalinnerud plant (ores), and a fish-processing plant. It also has house-building and furniture combines and enterprises of light industry and the food industry. Located in Iuzhno-Sakhalinsk are the Sakhalin Integrated Scientific Research Institute of the Far East Scientific Center of the Academy of Sciences of the USSR and the Sakhalin Branch of the Pacific Scientific Research Institute of Fisheries and Oceanography. The city has a pedagogical institute, technicums of forestry and Soviet trade, and pedagogical and music schools. Also in the city are a museum of local lore and the A. P. Chekhov Drama Theater.