Ivaniukov, Ivan Ivanovich
Born Oct. 19 (31), 1844, in Starokonstantinov, in present-day Khmel’nitskii Oblast, Ukrainian SSR; died Mar. 26 (Apr. 8), 1912, in St. Petersburg. Russian historian, economist, and publicist. Belonged to the dvo-rianstvo (nobility or gentry).
Ivaniukov graduated from St. Petersburg University in 1867. From 1874 he was professor of political economy at Warsaw University, Petrovskoe Agricultural Academy in Moscow, and St. Petersburg Polytechnicum. He was one of the first professors in Russia to introduce materials on economic history into his courses. Beginning in the late 1860’s he contributed to the journal Otechestvennye zapiski (Fatherland Notes); in the 1880’s to the journal Russkaia mysl (Russian Thought); and in the early 1890’s to the newspaper Russkie vedomosti and the journal Vestnik Evropy (Messenger of Europe). He wrote from a bourgeois liberal perspective, advocating the provision of land to the peasants, the development of domestic crafts, and the expansion of the network of schools and reading rooms. In 1880 and 1881 in Otechestvennye zapiski he published a series of articles on which his book The Fall of Serfdom in Russia (1882) was based. Ivaniukov attempted to prove that serfdom was abolished peacefully in Russia, with complete calm among the people and through the alleged good will of the government and the dvorianstvo, who were motivated by progressive literature. The book appreciably influenced the bourgeois liberal historiography of the peasant reform of 1861.
S. S. DMITRIEV