Ivan(redirected from Ivan the Red)
the name of several tsars and rulers of Bulgaria.
Ivan Asen’ II Bulgarian tsar (ruled 1218–41), son of Tsar Asen’ I.
After the death of Kaloian, Ivan Asen’ II fled to Galician and Volynian Rus’. In 1218 he overthrew Tsar Boril with the help of Russian troops. Under his rule the economic and political position of Bulgaria improved significantly. The minting of money was begun, and a commercial treaty was concluded with Dubrovnik (1230). An alliance was also made with the Hungarians. For a time he was able to establish hegemony over the Balkans. Breaking the ecclesiastical union with the papacy, he reestablished the Bulgarian partriarchate (1235) with the support of the Nicaean emperor John Vatatzes. He also laid siege to Constantinople in that year but was unsuccessful.
Ivan Alexander Bulgarian tsar (ruled 1331–71) of the Shishman dynasty.
Despot of the Lovcha region, Ivan Alexander seized power with the support of the great feudal lords. During his reign there was an increase in foreign trade (treaty concluded with Venice in 1352), and the country’s culture flourished. Ivan Alexander established peaceful relations with Walachia and Serbia. Taking advantage of Byzantium’s difficulties, he defeated its armies at Rosokastro (July 18, 1332) and seized a number of territories, including Philippopolis. In 1363 he concluded an anti-Byzantine alliance with the Turks. This period also witnessed the division of Bulgaria into the kingdoms of Vidin and Túrnovo.
Ivan Sratsimir (also I. Stratsimir). Year of birth unknown; died after 1396. Ruler of the Vidin Kingdom (1363–65, 137096). Son of Ivan Alexander.
Breaking with the kingdom of Turnovo and the Bulgarian patriarch, Ivan Sratsimir subordinated the Vidin church to the patriarch of Constantinople. After 1388 he was a vassal of the Turkish sultan.
Ivan Shishman Year of birth unknown; died June 3, 1395, in Nicopolis. Ruler, until 1393, of the kingdom of Túrnovo.
Ivan Shishman was a vassal of the Turkish sultan. His attempt to free himself from Turkish dependence after the victory of the Serbs over the Turks at Plotnik (1386) ended in failure.
REFERENCEIrechek, K. “Bulgarskii tsar Sratsimir Vidinski.” Periodichesko spisanie na Bulgarskoto knizhovno druzhestvo, 1882, vol. 1.
S. A. NIKITIN