(prior to 1962, Stanislav Oblast), an oblast in the western part of the Ukrainian SSR, established on Dec. 4, 1939, after the reunification of the Western Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR. Area, 13,900 sq km. Population, 1,264,000 (1971). It is divided into 14 raions and has 13 cities and 26 urban-type settlements. The administrative center is Ivano-Frankovsk. The oblast was awarded the Order of Lenin in 1967.
Natural features. The oblast is located at the junction of the East European Plain and the Carpathian Mountains. In terms of relief the oblast is divided into three parts: a plains and forest-steppe region (the Dnestr region); a central foothill region (the Carpathian region); and a southwestern mountain region (the Carpathians), which occupies almost half of the oblast’s total area. Along the northeastern border are the Opol’e and Pokut’e plains, whose surface in the western part is marked by hills and ridges, with elevations of 300 to 400 m; in their eastern part the plains are gently sloping and undulating, with elevations from 200 to 300 m. In the central part of the oblast, consisting of the hills and ridges of the Carpathian foothills (the Carpathian region), the relief becomes low-mountain in places, with elevations of 400 to 600 m. In the southwestern part of the oblast are mountains forming several ranges extending from northwest to southeast; these ranges are separated by transverse and longitudinal valleys and form the system comprising the East Bes-kids (1, 363 m), the Gorgany (1, 818 m), and the Pokut’e Mountains (1, 491 m). There are also the isolated Chernogora (highest point, Mount Goverla, 2,061 m), Chivchin, and Griniava massifs.
The oblast has a moderate continental climate. In the Dnestr and Carpathian regions winters are rather mild, with an average January temperature of −4° to − 5.5°C; summers are warm, with July temperatures of 18°-19°C. Precipitation ranges from 500 to 800 mm a year, and the growing season is 210–215 days. The climate is more severe and humid in the Carpathians, varying greatly with changes in elevation. The average January temperature drops to between −6° and − 9°C, and the mean July temperature ranges from 17°C to 6°C. Precipitation increases from 800 mm to 1,400 mm and more. The growing season decreases to 90 days.
The main rivers are the Dnestr (with its tributaries, the Gnilaia Lipa, Lomnitsa, and Bystritsa) and the Prut (with its principal tributary, the Cheremosh). High water occurs in the spring, and there are rain flood’s in the summer. The rivers provide hydroelectric power and are used for floating timber.
The soil and plant cover changes with elevation. Gray forest podzolized soils and podzolized chernozem soils predominate on the plains. Soddy podzolic soils are found in the foothills, and brown mountain-forest soils with varying degrees of podzoliza-tion, soddy brown soils, and mountain-meadow soddy and peaty soils occur in the mountains. The plains and foothills have been largely brought under cultivation. Forests cover about 35 percent of the oblast’s total area, with oak, oak-beech, and oak-hornbeam forests predominating on the plains and beech-oak, beech, and beech-fir forests in the foothills. The lower mountain slopes are covered with mixed forests, mainly of beech, fir, and spruce and the upper slopes with coniferous (chiefly spruce) forests. The highest peaks, with elevations from 1,400 to 1,600 m, are occupied by subalpine meadows at altitudes of 1,850 to 1,900 m, and by alpine meadows above 1,900 m.
Among forest animals are red deer, roe deer, wild boars, foxes, wolves, badgers, stone and pine marten, wildcats, lynx, brown bears, and squirrels. Birds include thrushes, woodpeckers, owls, capercaillies, and black grouse.
Population. The bulk of the population is made up of Ukrainians (95 percent in 1970), with a small admixture of Russians (3.7 percent) and Poles (0.5 percent). The average population density was 90.9 per sq km in 1971. In the plains and foothills population density may reach 120–140 per sq km and more; in the mountains it decreases to about 58 per sq km. Urban population represented 31 percent of the total in 1971. The major cities are Ivano-Frankovsk, Kolomyia, Kalush, Dolina, and Galich.
Economy. Overall economic development began after the reunification of the Western Ukraine with the Ukrainian SSR. In 1971 the total industrial output of the oblast was 16 times that of 1940. The leading industries are the oil, gas, chemicals, machine-building, timber, and wood-products industries. The Burshtyn State District Power Plant produces electric power. There are oil fields and refineries in Dolina, Nadvornaia, and Bytkov, and gas is extracted and processed in Nadvornaia, Dolina, and Bogorodchany. The Bratstvo gas pipeline originates in Dolina. The chemical industry is represented by the Kalush Chemical and Metallurgical Combine, producing mineral fertilizers and other products, and by a timber chemical plant in Vygoda. The most important machine-building amd metalworking enterprises are the instrument-manufacturing plant, locomotive repair shop, and motor vehicle repair shop in Ivano-Frankovsk and the agricultural machinery plant in Kolomyia. The wood-products industry is well developed in Kolomyia, Vygoda, Broshnev-Osada, Nadvornaia, Verkhovina, and Solotvin. The furniture industry is concentrated in Ivano-Frankovsk, Bolekhov, and Otynia, and the paper industry in Kolomyia. The principal food industries are sugar production (Gorodenka, and the Bovshov Plant) and the distilling of alcoholic beverages (Ivano-Frankovsk, Sniatyn, and Podgaichiki). Other food industries include a tobacco-curing plant in Zabolo-tov, breweries in Ivano-Frankovsk, Kolomyia, and Kalush, creameries in Kolomyia, Galich, and Gorodenka, and meat combines in Ivano-Frankovsk and Kolomyia. The most important enterprises in light industry are a leather and footwear combine in Ivano-Frankovsk, leather plants in Bolekhov and Ivano-Frankovsk, factories producing footwear, curtains, textiles, clothing, and brushes in Kolomyia, factories producing knitwear, clothing, and art objects in Ivano-Frankovsk, and a fur factory in Tysmenitsa. The carpet industry is well developed, with factories in Kosov, Kuty, and Kolomyia. Construction materials, such as reinforced-concrete products, bricks, and cement, are produced in Ivano-Frankovsk, Kalush, Dolina, Bolekhov, Kolomyia, and Iamnitsa. Artistic handicrafts are widespread and include wood carving, inlaid work, weaving, embroidery, carpet-making, and ceramics (Kosov, Kolomyia, Verkhovina).
Agriculture is represented by both farming and animal husbandry. In 1971 there were 252 kolkhozes and 20 sovkhozes. In 1970 51.3 percent of the land was under cultivation, 9.6 percent was sown to hay, and 12.5 percent was pasture. The total area under crops in 1971 was 413,400 hectares (ha), including 173,300 ha devoted to cereals (wheat, rye, barley, and corn), 44,000 ha to industrial crops (sugar beets and flax), 55,600 ha to potatoes, 7,700 ha to vegetables, and 132,500 ha to fodder. The growing of apples, plums, pears, cherries, and walnuts is being developed. In 1971 a drainage network covered 65,200 ha of land. Wheat, corn, barley, and sugar beets are grown chiefly in the valleys and foothills, where most of the orchards are also found. Animals are raised for meat and milk. As of Jan. 1, 1972, livestock numbered 533,400 head of cattle (including 229,200 cows), 267,700 hogs, and 116,300 goats and sheep. Animal husbandry is best developed in the mountainous Carpathian region. There is also poultry farming and fish breeding in ponds, lakes, and rivers.
In 1970 the total length of the railroad system was 493 km. The most important railroad lines are the L’vov-Ivano-Fran-kovsk, Ivano-Frankovsk-Chernovtsy, Ivano-Frankovsk-Stryi, and Ivano-Frankovsk-Rakhov. The cities of Ivano-Frankovsk, Kolomyia, and Deliatin are major railroad junctions. There are 5,300 km of automobile roads, including 4,200 km of hard-surfaced roads. The most important highways are the Ivano-Frankovsk-L’vov, Ivano-Frankovsk-Kolomyia-Chernovtsy, Ivano-Frankovsk- Deliatin - Rakhov, Ivano-Frankovsk - Stry i -Mukachevo-Uzhgorod, and Ivano-Frankovsk-Kolomyia-Kosov-Verkhovina.
Education, cultural affairs, and public health. In 1911–12 there were 735 general-education schools (156, 900 pupils) and no higher or secondary specialized educational institutions in the area today occupied by Ivano-Frankovsk Oblast. In 1970–71 there were 244,000 pupils attending 846 general-education schools of all kinds, 8,610 students in 15 vocational schools, 12,700 students in 17 secondary specialized educational institutions, and 13,400 students in three higher educational institutions (medical and pedagogical institutes and a petroleum and gas institute in Ivano-Frankovsk). In 1970, there were 20,200 children enrolled in 234 preschool institutions. As of Jan. 1, 1971, the oblast had 961 public libraries containing 10.3 million books and journals, a puppet theater, a theater of music and drama, a philharmonic society, and the State Hutzul Song and Dance Ensemble (in Ivano-Frankovsk). Museums include the Ivano-Frankovsk Museum of Local Lore (with its branches, the Museum of Partisan Glory in Iaremcha and the I. Franko Literary Museum in the village of Krivorivna), the Kolomyia Museum of the Folk Art of the Hutzul Region, the V. Stefanik Rusov Memorial Literary Museum, and the M. Cheremshina Sniatyn Memorial Literary Museum. There are also 824 clubs, 846 film projectors, 27 palaces and houses of Pioneers, 13 sports schools, and two centers for young technicians.
The oblast newspapers Prykarpats’ka pravda. (since 1939) and Komsomol’-skyiprapor (since 1958) are published in Ukrainian.
The oblast radio station broadcasts over one frequency in Ukrainian and Russian and also relays broadcasts from Kiev and Moscow.
As of Jan. 1, 1971, the oblast had 152 hospitals with 12,100 beds (9.5 per 1,000 inhabitants) and 2,900 doctors (one per 435 inhabitants). There are climatic health resorts in Iaremcha, Vo-rokhta, and Tatarov in the Carpathians and a pelotherapy resort in Cherche in the Dnestr region. The main tourist center is Iaremcha.
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Koinov, M.M. Pryroda Stanislavs’koi oblasti. L’vov, 1960.
Korets’kyi, L. M., and M.M. Palamarchuk. Geografiia promyslovosti Ukrains’koi RSR. Kiev, 1967.
Narodne gospodarstvo Ivano-Frankivs’koi oblasti: Stat, zbirnyk. Kievl’vov, 1968.
Narodne gospodarstvo Ukrains’koi RSR v 1967 rotsi: Stat, shchorichnyk. Kiev, 1968.
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N. N. RYBIN