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Ivanovo(ēvä`nəvə), city (1991 pop. 540,000), capital of Ivanovo region, central European Russia, in the Moscow industrial region. A great Russian textile center, the city was the historic center of Russia's cotton-milling industry. From the 1880s it was a center of labor unrest. During the revolution of 1905, 60,000 workers went on strike and formed one of the first soviets of workers' representatives. After six weeks the strike was crushed. The city was called Ivano-Voznesensk until 1932.
(prior to 1932, Ivanovo-Voznesensk), a city, center of Ivanovo Oblast, RSFSR. Located on the Uvod’ River (tributary of the Kliaz’ma). Connected by rail lines with Moscow, Yaroslavl, Kineshma, Vladimir, and Gorky. Population (1972), 434,000 (54,000 in 1897, 111,000 in 1926, 285,000 in 1939, and 335,000 in 1959). The city is divided into three city-raions.
It was founded as a city of Shuia District, Vladimir Province, in 1871 by merging the village of Ivanovo (the first mention of which dates to 1561) and the suburb of Voznesenskii Posad. Ivanovo had been a large trading and crafts village. The peasants worked mainly in the linen industry. The first textile mill was opened by the peasant Butrimov in 1741; subsequently, textile mills were opened by the peasants Grachev and Garelin. Ivanovo’s linen fabrics supplied the English market. Many establishments producing printed cloth for the domestic market also began operating in the village. In the late 18th century, there was a transition from linen to cotton production and fabric printing. The Garelin cotton mill began operating in 1848. Voznesenskii Posad was founded in 1853. After the reform of 1861, the rate of development in Ivanovo and Voznesenskii Posad increased.
The strike movement developed in Ivanovo starting in the 1870’s. (By the beginning of the 20th century, there were about 30,000 workers in Ivanovo.) In 1892 the first Marxist circle was founded on the initiative of O.A. Varentsova; in 1895, it became the Ivanovo-Voznesensk Union of Workers. The first general strike took place in late 1897 and early 1898. (More than 14,000 workers struck for three weeks.) After the First Congress of the RSDLP (1898), the Ivanovo-Voznesensk union was reorganized into the Ivanovo-Voznesensk committee of the RSDLP; later it was associated with the Iskra. The famous Ivanovo-Voznesensk strike of 1905, during which the soviet of representatives—the first soviet of workers’ deputies in Russia—was created, took place in Ivanovo. The strike was directed by the Bolshevik organization headed by M.V. Frunze, F.A. Afanas’ev, and S.I. Balashov. In the fall of 1906 all the party organizations of the city merged to form the Ivanovo-Voznesensk Union of the RSDLP.
During World War I (1914–18) the revolutionary movement in Ivanovo came to life once more: in May 1915 more than 31,000 workers struck. During the February Revolution a soviet of workers’ deputies was elected in Ivanovo on Mar. 2, 1917; long before the October Revolution, power in the city was actually held by the soviet. The soviet organized detachments of the Red Guard; workers’ control was introduced in the mills. Soviet power was definitively established in Ivanovo on Oct. 25 (Nov. 7), 1917. In 1917 a detachment of Red Guard workers from Ivanovo and Shuia, led by M.V. Frunze, took part in the October armed uprising in Moscow.
From April 1918, Ivanovo was the center of Ivanovo-Voznesensk Province. During the Civil War of 1918–20, workers’ detachments from Ivanovo fought heroically on many fronts. Factories were built in the city during the years of prewar socialist construction: the F.E. Dzerzhinskii (1927) and Krasnaia Talka (1929) spinning mills, a bleach and dye factory (1928), and a melange (mixed fabric) combine (1929). During the Great Patriotic War of 1941–45 about 30,000 residents of Ivanovo voluntarily went to the front. The M.V. Frunze divisions and Dm. Furmanov First Ivanovo Workers’ Regiment fought gloriously. From the first days of the war, the city’s industry was converted to the production of military goods (uniforms, dressings, and the like).
During the postwar years, along with the traditional textile branch, machine building, the chemical and petrochemical industries, energetics, and the wood-products, paper and pulp, and building-materials industries were developed. Present-day Ivanovo is a large industrial center. The textile branch holds the leading place in the city’s industry; there are mixed fabric and worsted combines, a number of textile mills, a spool and bobbin plant, and a clothing factory. Ivanovo is also the site of large plants producing machinery for the textile and peat extraction industries and plants producing cranes, borers, and testing apparatus. There is a combine producing soles from man-made materials. The city has food industry (a meat combine, a dairy, margarine and fish-processing plants, and a confectionery factory). There are two heat and electric power plants. The city of Komsomol’sk, near Ivanovo, is the site of the Ivanovo State Regional Electric Power Plant, which operates on peat. On Dec. 16, 1970, Ivanovo was awarded the Order of the October Revolution.
Ivanovo has institutes of energetics, chemical technology, textiles, medicine, agriculture, and pedagogy and 13 specialized secondary schools. There are museums of local lore and of art, three theaters, and a philharmonic society.
In the past, Ivanovo was a capitalist city with numerous mills, one- and two-story wooden houses in the center of the city, and poorly serviced workers’ settlements on the outskirts. Under Soviet power construction in the city has been based on a single general plan. (Construction has been developing out from the center, southward and southeastward.) Well-serviced workers’ settlements with multistory residences have been built on the outskirts. A number of large public buildings have been constructed in the center of the city: a bank (1927, architect V.A. Vesnin), an institute of chemical technology (1929, architect I.A. Fomin), the Bolshoi Dramatic Theater (1940, architects A.V. Vlasov and N.I. Kadnikov; reconstructed), and the Musical Comedy Theater (1964, architect G.P. Smolikhin, engineers Iu. A. Petrov and M.V. Gusev). There are monuments to V.I. Lenin (bronze and granite, 1956, sculptor P.Z. Fridman, architect A.K. Rostkovskii) and M.V. Frunze (bronze and granite, 1957, sculptor Iu. G. Neroda, architect A.K. Rostkovskii).
REFERENCESEkzempliarskii, P.M. Istoriia goroda Ivanovo, parts 1–2. Ivanovo, 1958–62.
Shchennikov, P.N. Preobrazhennyi gorod. Ivanovo, 1961.
a city (since 1971) and center of Ivanovo Raion, Brest Oblast, Byelorussian SSR. Located 2 km from the Ianov-Polesskii railroad station on the Brest-Luninets line. There is a cannery, a mechanized bakery, a powdered milk plant, and a poultry brooder.