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one of the oldest Russian cities (now the village of Staryi Izborsk), located on Lake Gorodishche 30 km west of Pskov. It is mentioned in the chronicle under the year 862. In 1303, Izborsk was moved from the so-called Truvor fortified site to the Zherav’ia Hill 25 km farther east. Here in 1330 a stone fortress was built and was subsequently reconstructed and reinforced in the late 14th and 15th centuries. The fortress is made of limestone and has six towers; its square occupies an area of 15,000 sq m. The city, whose strong fortifications defended Pskov from attack by the German knights, is an outstanding monument of old Russian architecture.