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see NicaeaNicaea
, city of Bithnyia, N Asia Minor, built in the 4th cent. B.C. by Antigonus I as Antigonia and renamed Nicaea by Lysimachus for his wife. It flourished under the Romans. It was the scene of the ecumenical council called in A.D.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



a population center in northwestern Turkey, in the vilayet of Bursa, near the eastern shore of Lake İznik. Population, approximately 8,000.

The city was founded in the fourth century B.C. by the Macedonian king Antigonus I (reigned 306–301 B.C.) and was given the name Antigonia. The diadochos Lysimachus changed the city’s name to Nicaea (Greek, Nikaia). During the first century B.C. it came under Roman rule. From the end of the fourth century A.D. to the beginning of the 13th century the city was the most important trading, crafts, and cultural center of Byzantium. Ecumenical councils were held in Nicaea in 325 and 787. During the Arab-Byzantine wars of the seventh through tenth centuries the city was besieged twice by the Arabs, but they were unsuccessful. In 1081 it was captured by the Seljuks, and until 1097 it was the capital of the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum. In 1097, during the First Crusade, the city was returned to Byzantium. During the period 1204–61 it was the capital of the Nicaean Empire. In the 14th century it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks (since that time it has been called İznik) and became the first residence of the sultan Orkhan (reigned 1324–59/60 or 1362). İznik began to decline in the middle of the 17th century, and by the middle of the 18th century its population had decreased from 10,000 to 1, 500.

Remnants of Hellenistic structures have been preserved (parts of the theater and the city walls with sections reconstructed during the medieval period). Among the well-known Byzantine structures are the churches of the Assumption (seventh and tenth centuries, mosaics from the seventh through ninth and 11th centuries; church is nonextant) and St. Sophia (eighth century, with murals from the 13th century). Among the Turkish monuments are mosques (Yeşil Cami, or the “Green Mosque,” 1379–93; Kutbeddin Pasha, 14th century), the imaret Nilüfer Hatun (1389), the madrasa of Suleiman Pasha (1336 [?]), and the mausoleum of Hayreddin Pasha (1379).


Otto-Dorn, K. Das islamische İznik. Berlin, 1941.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The comparison of morphometric analysis and meat yield contents of freshwater crayfish, Astacus leptodactylus (Esch 1823) caught from Iznik, Egirdir Lakes and Hirfanli Dam Lake.
At the same time, stories from the above-mentioned hagiographic source (or others like it) link Esrefoglu (or his immediate family) to the Ottoman palace and the highest level of the sultan's inner circle and point to considerable influence on the part of the Iznik sheikh.
Its current aesthetic reflects the Ottoman style, especially in the Iznik tiles depicting cypress trees and vases holding tulips.
325, the first general council of the Church met in Nicea (present day Iznik), where it proclaimed the doctrine of the Trinity and established the Nicene Creed.
Adding to the summer love, designer- duo Pankaj & Nidhi drew inspiration from Turkey's traditional Iznik pottery to showcase a variety of chic styles like pencil dresses, high- waisted shorts, wide capris, off- shoulder necks, assymetrical skirts, bell sleeves and crop tops.
Among the 237 objects to go under the hammer, highlights include a life-size portrait of Persian ruler Fath 'Ali Shah, an important Iznik pottery tile depicting the Ka'ba, and an eleventh-century rock crystal chess piece.
As he walked the ancient city of Istanbul--awestruck by the magnificent tiles found in the mosques there--he envisioned a project for when he returned to Hiller Elementary: "an all-school ceramic mural in which each student and teacher would design and glaze a flower tile." Read all about it in "One Garden, Many Flowers: A Mural Inspired by Iznik Tiles" (page 16).
The 17th century Blue Mosque, so–called because of the Iznik tiles that decorate the walls of the interior, is only one of a few mosques in the world that boasts six minarets.
Alongside these is a rare and beautiful large-scale Qur'an copied by the famous calligrapher Ahmed Nayrizi, with later illumination added for the Shah of Persia, Fath 'Ali Shah, as well as a portrait of Rustam Khan Zand, signed by Muhammad Sadiq, Persia, Zand, Shiraz, circa 1779 (estimated Au300,000-500,000), an exquisite illustrated leaf Four Young Scholars in Discussion signed by Muhammad Murad Samarqandi, Persia, Safavid, Bukhara, early 17th century (estimated Au400,000-600,000), and some fine examples of Iznik pottery and Islamic manuscripts, among other varied works of art.
Each chapter, named after the letters of the Greek alphabet, follows his travels throughout the Byzantine research center in London and places like Antioch, Greece, Trabzon, Iznik, Cappadocia, and Istanbul, where Byzantine legacies persist.