Jókai, Mór(mōr yō`koi), 1825–1904, Hungarian romantic novelist and journalist. Jókai was a fervent nationalist who, after the Hungarian defeat in 1848, became a fugitive from the Austrians. He was later a member (1861–97) of the Hungarian parliament. Often compared to both Dickens and Scott, Jókai was an enormously prolific and popular writer. His novels, national in character, often earthy and humorous in style, have been translated into 25 languages. Among them are An Hungarian Nabob (1894, tr. 1898) and Black Diamonds (1870, tr. 1896).
Born Feb. 18, 1825, in Komárom; died May 5, 1904, in Budapest. Hungarian author from a minor gentry family. His first novel, Weekdays (1846), is written in the traditions of romanticism, with which his subsequent work is also associated.
Beginning in 1847, Jókai edited the progressive journal Életképek. In 1848, he and S. Petőfi took part in the revolution, but Jókai soon returned to a position of reconciliation with the Hapsburgs. He celebrated the national liberation struggle in his novels The Golden Age of Transylvania (1852) and The Sons of the Man With a Heart of Stone (1869; Russian translation, 1959; film of the same name, 1965). His enthusiasm for the idea of gradual reform is reflected in the novels A Hungarian Nabob (1853; film of the same name, 1966), Zoltán Kárpáthy (1854), and The New Squire (1963).
Jókai placed his hopes in the development of a capitalist economy (the novels Black Diamonds, 1870, and A Man of Gold, 1873; Russian translations, 1882). Elements of entertainment occupy an important place in Jókai’s later work, but the novel The Prisoner Rabi (1879) and the novella Yellow Rose (1893; Russian translation, 1956) contain realistic features.
WORKSVálogatott művei [vols. 1–32]. Budapest, 1954–62.
REFERENCESKlaniczai, T., J. Szauder, and M. Szabolcsi. Kratkaia istoriia vengerskoi literatury XI-XX vv. Budapest, 1962. (Translated from Hungarian.)
Sőtér, I. Romantika és realizmus. Budapest, 1956.
Dely, Zs. A fiatal Jókai nyelve és stilusa. Budapest, 1969.
E. I. MALYKHINA