Joseph Hodges Choate

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Joseph Hodges Choate
Salem, Massachusetts

Choate, Joseph Hodges

(chōt), 1832–1917, American lawyer and diplomat, b. Salem, Mass.; nephew of Rufus ChoateChoate, Rufus
, 1799–1859, American lawyer and Congressman, b. Essex co., Mass.; uncle of Joseph Hodges Choate. Admitted to the bar in 1823, Rufus Choate gained national reputation as a lawyer and as an orator. He served (1830–34) in the U.S.
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. After being admitted (1855) to the bar, he moved to New York City. His legal career lasted over 50 years and included many famous cases; his brilliant presentation of cases won him an unrivaled reputation. Choate twice helped to arouse New York City to defeat the TammanyTammany
or Tammany Hall,
popular name for the Democratic political machine in Manhattan. Origins

After the American Revolution several patriotic societies sprang up to promote various political causes and economic interests.
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 political machine—in 1871, when the Tweed Ring was exposed (see Tweed, William MarcyTweed, William Marcy,
1823–78, American politician and Tammany leader, b. New York City. A bookkeeper, he became (1848) a volunteer fireman and as a result acquired influence in his ward. He was an alderman (1852–53) and sat (1853–55) in Congress.
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), and again in 1894. He was president (1894) of the New York state constitutional convention and helped win public approval of the new constitution. In 1899 President William McKinley appointed him ambassador to Great Britain, and he served for six years with distinction, helping to promote Anglo-American friendship. In 1907 he headed the American delegation to the Second Hague ConferenceHague Conferences,
term for the International Peace Conference of 1899 (First Hague Conference) and the Second International Peace Conference of 1907 (Second Hague Conference). Both were called by Russia and met at The Hague, the Netherlands.
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See his autobiography, Boyhood and Youth (1917); biographies by T. G. Strong (1917) and E. S. Martin (2 vol., 1920).

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