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birds of the family Corvidae of the order Passeriformes. There are two closely related species: the common jackdaw (Corvus monedula) and the Daurian jackdaw (C. daurica).The body is 22-23 cm long and weighs 150-200g. The plumage is soft. The dorsal side is black with a metallic shine. In the common jackdaw the ventral side is grayish black, and in the Daurian jackdaw it is white or black. There is a white semicollar on the neck. The common jackdaw is found in Europe, Asia (excluding the extreme northern parts), and northeastern Africa, and in the eastern USSR as far as central Siberia. The Daurian jackdaw inhabits southern Siberia east of the Enisei, Mongolia, and China. Jackdaws are migratory and occasionally permanently settled birds. They are monogamous and nest in colonies in hollows of trees, rock clefts, and burrows in cliffs and on buildings. There is one clutch per year in April-May, consisting of three to six blue green eggs with dark speckles. Incubation lasts 16 days. After nesting, jackdaws stay in flocks and migrate. They feed on animals and plants and can be useful by eating insects.