Jackson Pollock


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Pollock, Jackson,

1912–56, American painter, b. Cody, Wyo. He studied (1929–31) in New York City, mainly under Thomas Hart BentonBenton, Thomas Hart,
1889–1975, American regionalist painter, b. Neosho, Mo.; grandnephew of Sen. Thomas Hart Benton and son of Rep. Maecenas E. Benton. In 1906 and 1907 he attended the Art Institute of Chicago and at 19 went to Paris, where he remained for three years,
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, but he was more strongly influenced by A. P. RyderRyder, Albert Pinkham,
1847–1917, American painter, b. New Bedford, Mass. In 1867 his family moved to New York City. There he studied with W. E. Marshall, the engraver, and at the National Academy of Design, but he was largely self-taught.
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 and the Mexican muralists, especially SiqueirosSiqueiros, David Alfaro
, 1896–1974, Mexican painter, b. Chihuahua. Siqueiros was among Mexico's most original and eminent painters. His career as an artist was always related to his vigorous socialist revolutionary activities.
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. From 1938 to 1942, Pollock worked on the Federal Art Project in New York City. Affected by surrealismsurrealism
, literary and art movement influenced by Freudianism and dedicated to the expression of imagination as revealed in dreams, free of the conscious control of reason and free of convention.
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 and also by PicassoPicasso, Pablo
(Pablo Ruiz y Picasso) , 1881–1973, Spanish painter, sculptor, graphic artist, and ceramist, who worked in France. He is generally considered in his technical virtuosity, enormous versatility, and incredible originality and prolificity to have been the
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, he moved toward a highly abstract art in order to express, rather than illustrate, feeling. His experimentations led to the development of his famous "drip" technique, in which he energetically drew or "dripped" complicated linear rhythms onto enormous canvases, which were often placed flat on the floor. He sometimes applied paint directly from the tube, and at times also used aluminum paint to achieve a glittery effect. His vigorous attack on the canvas and intense devotion to the very act of painting led to the term "action painting." Pollock had become a symbol of the new artistic revolt, abstract expressionismabstract expressionism,
movement of abstract painting that emerged in New York City during the mid-1940s and attained singular prominence in American art in the following decade; also called action painting and the New York school.
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, by the time he was killed in an automobile accident. His paintings are in many major collections, including museums in New York City, San Francisco, Dallas, and Chicago. Pollock was married to the painter Lee KrasnerKrasner, Lee
, 1911–84, American artist, b. Brooklyn. She studied with Hans Hofmann and became a leading figure in abstract expressionism along with her husband, Jackson Pollock.
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.

Bibliography

See H. Harrison, ed., Such Desperate Joy: Imagining Jackson Pollock (2001) and P. Karmel, ed., Jackson Pollock: Key Interviews, Articles, and Reviews (2002); catalogue raisonné, 4 vol., ed. by F. V. O'Connor and E. B. Thaw (1978, supplement 1995) and catalog ed. by K. Varnedoe and P. Karmel (1998); B. H. Friedman, Jackson Pollock: Energy Made Visible (1972, repr. 1995); J. Potter, To a Violent Grave: An Oral Biography of Jackson Pollock (1985); D. Solomon, Jackson Pollock: A Biography (1987); S. Naifeh and G. W. Smith, Jackson Pollock: An American Genius (1988); E. G. Landau, Jackson Pollock (1989); C. Ratcliff, The Fate of a Gesture: Jackson Pollock and Post-War American Art (1996).

Pollock, Jackson

 

Born Jan. 28, 1912, in Cody, Wyo., died Aug. 12, 1956, in East Hampton, N.Y. American painter.

Pollock studied in Los Angeles from 1925 to 1929 at the Manual Arts High School and in New York from 1929 to 1931 at the Art Students League. His teacher in New York was T. H. Benton. After 1940 he turned to abstract art, becoming one of the leaders of its “Pacific school.” Pollock’s work is an extreme expression of irrationalism and of abstract expressionism’s principle of “spontaneous form creation.” To imitate random color-istic and linear effects, Pollock painted by dripping, that is, he applied his colors without a brush.

REFERENCE

Tomassoni, I. J. Pollock. [Florence, 1968].

Pollock, (Paul) Jackson

(1912–56) painter; born in Cody, Wyo. He grew up in Wyoming and California, moved to New York City, and studied intermittently with Thomas Hart Benton at the Art Students League (c. 1929–32). His paintings of the 1930s, such as Birth (1937), anticipate the turbulent impasto and sexual imagery of his later work. His first major exhibition was organized by Peggy Guggenheim (1943) when he was using mythological themes, as seen in The She Wolf (1943). Around 1946 he settled in Easthampton, Long Island, and began his critically acclaimed abstract work exemplified by Full Fathom Five (1947). The spatter-and-drip technique used on his large canvases (1945–55) established his reputation as a major abstract expressionistic painter. He explored figurative studies, but shortly before his death in an automobile accident, he reclaimed his interest in action painting.
References in periodicals archive ?
A new art studio called Expressionist Arts has dedicated itself to producing the creative and original art products that reflect the era and artistry of the Jackson Pollock days of the 1950's in New York City.
I worked on the idea of Jackson Pollock and how he poured paint on the canvas without touching it with his hands," Harb explains, "and I had the idea to attach a drill to the brush and work with it to see what would happen.
When someone suggested it might be Jackson Pollock painting, Teri started a quest to validate her purchase as a true work of art.
Mr Cramerotti said: "We had an unexpected visit from Charles Bergman who is the CEO of the Pollock Krasner Foundation Inc, which administers Jackson Pollock.
1 -- color) The modern, abstract paintings of New Yorker Marla Olmstead, 6, have been compared to the works of Jackson Pollock.
Jackson Pollock and true and false ambition: the urgent difference.
Students are expected to know that Jackson Pollock (1912-1956) was the first American painter to make Abstract Expressionism popular in 1947.
I never went to the Cedar bar, because I might ran into Jackson Pollock, and I did not want to run into him," Indiana recalls.
Some 30 per cent of builders answered every modern art question correctly -from who won this year's Turner Prize to identifying Jackson Pollock as an abstract expressionist.
For Kennedy, those artists were painters Jackson Pollock and Pablo Picasso, and poet Federico Garcia Lorca.
Ed Harris, left, stars (and directs) as Jackson Pollock, in a performance which left many wondering why he didn't walk off with an Oscar.
YOU may never have heard of Jackson Pollock but after seeing this powerful biopic of the 20th Century American painter you get a real sense of his tortured genius.

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