Jacobin Club


Also found in: Dictionary, Wikipedia.

Jacobin Club

 

a political club during the French Revolution. The club’s predecessor was the Breton Club, which was founded in Versailles in June 1789 by a group of deputies to the Estates General from the Third Estate of Brittany. The Breton Club was soon joined by many Third Estate deputies from other provinces and by some deputies of the nobility (liberal noblemen turned bourgeois). Having moved to Paris in October 1789, the Breton Club was reconstituted as the Society of Friends of the Constitution; it came to be known as the Jacobin Club after its meeting place—the former library of the Jacobin monks (as the members of the Dominican Order were called in France).

Membership in the Jacobin Club was not restricted to the Constituent Assembly’s deputies, but the relatively high dues kept out the poor strata of society. The Jacobin Club included the most prominent political figures and members of legislative and governmental institutions. It had a wide network of branches in the provinces.

The club’s political orientation and membership became more democratic as the revolution surged ahead. The original members of the Jacobin Club were united in their opposition to the feudal absolutist system, but the most influential among them were the constitutional monarchists and representatives of the moderate big bourgeoisie and liberal nobility. In the spring of 1790 the most conservative members of the club, such as E. J. Sieyés, H. G. Mirabeau, and M. J. La Fayette, formed a small group known as the Society of 1789 while retaining formal membership in the Jacobin Club. The first split in the Jacobin Club took place on July 16, 1791—a time of acute political crisis for the country. The constitutional monarchists left the club and founded the Feuillant Club. The Jacobin Club fell under the influence of the more radical bourgeois members who sided with J. P. Brissot (the future Girondins).

After the overthrow of the monarchy on Aug. 10, 1792, the strong rift within the Jacobin Club divided its members into the Girondins, who sought to impede the forward march of the revolution, and the Jacobins, led by M. de Robespierre. The second split in the Jacobin Club, in October 1792, ended with the expulsion of Brissot and the subsequent secession of the other Girondins. Thereafter the club was led by bourgeois revolutionary democrats. During the Jacobin dictatorship, the Jacobin Club was the main center where government policy was formulated. During the period of intense struggle between the various Jacobin currents, the club remained the focus of support of Robespierre’s followers. After the Thermidorian coup of July 27–28, 1794, the Jacobin Club was closed by decree of the Convention on Nov. 12, 1794.

A. V. ADO

References in periodicals archive ?
Brissot's expulsion from the Jacobin Club on 10 October 1792, might have been avoided if had he deigned to appear to answer his critics, as he was requested to do.
The Jacobin Clubs in the French Revolution, 1793-1795, by Michael L.
Structurally, the network of Jacobin clubs was modeled after the social world of the old regime--primarily masonic lodges--and a few clubs were outgrowths of pre-Revolutionary reading clubs (p.
Many of the most important men in national politics began meeting at her home several times a week,(85) and Roland herself had the opportunity to attend both meetings of the Assembly as it struggled with the Constitution(86) and meetings of revolutionary societies such as the Jacobin club and the Cercle Social.
Jean-Henri Bancal des Issarts (1750-1826): Named Electeur de Paris for the district of Saint-Eustache in 1789, he was one of the founding members of the Jacobin club and the Club de 1789, and a member of the National Convention in 1792.
87) Roland reports on the happenings at the Jacobin club in letter 433, to Bancal, 22 June 1791, p.
Interestingly, their views were echoed even within the ideologically-charged atmosphere of the Jacobin club of Paris.
104) This emphasis upon "ardour and courage" was echoed by Augustin Robespierre, in the account of the siege which he gave to the Jacobin club on 9 Nivose.
The determination to link the National Convention to the struggle for Toulon reached its most extreme tengths at the Jacobin Club of Paris on 8 nivose, when Levasseur sought to appropriate a share of the glory for the city's recapture to Marat, for having supported Dugommier.
THIS BOOK is the final instalment of Kennedy's three-volume history of the Jacobin clubs in the French Revolution.
The narrative of the book allows the reader to navigate the complicated life of the Jacobin clubs during the Revolution.
Kennedy has done much to provide new information regarding the inner workings of the Jacobin clubs in the Revolution.