Jacques Arsène Darsonval
Also found in: Medical.
D’arsonval, Jacques Arsène
Born June 8, 1851, in Borie, Haute-Vienne; died there Dec. 31, 1940. French physiologist and physicist; member of the Academy of Sciences in Paris (1894) and the Academy of Medicine (1888).
Beginning in 1882, d’Arsonval was head of the laboratory of biophysics, and from 1894 of the department of experimental physiology, of the Collège de France. Studying the effects of alternating currents on biological subjects, d’Arsonval established (1891) that high-frequency currents can pass through the body without evoking any visible phenomena of tissue irritation, but that they do exert various physiological effects, depending upon their character and method of application. D’Arsonval’s research had great significance in the development of electrotherapeutic methods. Combining physiological experiments in his investigations with delicate physical analysis, he promoted the development of a new field of biology—biophysics. D’Arsonval introduced a number of instruments and apparatus to the practice of physiological research, including the calorimeter, the thermoelectric needle, and galvanometer with a moving coil.