Jacques Lipchitz


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Lipchitz, Jacques

(zhäk lēpshēts`), 1891–1973, French sculptor, b. Lithuania as Chaim Jacob Lipchitz. From 1909, Lipchitz studied in Paris, where he became a member of the Esprit Nouveau group. From about 1915 to 1930 he was widely recognized as one of the major cubist (see cubismcubism,
art movement, primarily in painting, originating in Paris c.1907. Cubist Theory

Cubism began as an intellectual revolt against the artistic expression of previous eras.
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) sculptors. Among his characteristic cubist bronzes in American collections are Girl with a Braid (c.1914–15, Philadelphia Mus. of Art) and Bather (1923–25, Sheldon Memorial Art Gall., Lincoln, Neb.). His vibrant skeletal constructions, which he originated in 1913, are unique in modern sculpture. In 1924 he began creating transparent sculptures, using the lost-wax technique, that resembled drawings in bronze. Allegories of struggle preoccupied him in the late 1930s, and he executed such works as The Rape of Europa, Bull and Candor, and Prometheus. Lipchitz emigrated to the United States in 1941, became a citizen in 1957, and spent much of his last decade in Italy. Returning briefly to France after World War II, he was commissioned in 1946 to design a font for the new church of Assy, Haute-Savoie. The bronze models for it, along with many of his works, were destroyed by fire in his New York studio in 1952, but the following year he resumed work on the Assy Madonna and on another sculpture, The Spirit of Enterprise, for Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. His American-period works broke with his earlier cool semi-abstract forms and he created many muscularly rounded, emotionally evocative, and often monumental sculptures. The most ambitious of these is probably Peace on Earth (1967–70, Los Angeles Music Center). In 1955 he also began producing his celebrated semiautomatics—masses of clay or plasticine, which he first molded underwater, using only his sense of touch, before seeing the sculpture through to completion. Other examples of his work are in such collections as the Museum of Modern Art, New York City, and the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Bibliography

See his My Life in Sculpture, written with H. H. Arnason (1972); biography by A. G. Wilkinson (1990); studies by B. Van Born (1966) and H. H. Arnason (1969).

Lipchitz, Jacques (b. Chaim Jacob)

(1891–1973) sculptor; born in Druskienki, Lithuania. He studied in Paris (1909–11), established a studio (1913), and became a master of cubism, as in Joy of Life (1927). In 1941 he emigrated to New York City, and his work became more emotional and fluid, as in Prometheus Strangling the Vulture II (1944–45). He lived in Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y. (1947–63) and in Italy (1963–73).
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The final sculpture of Jacques Lipchitz, the five-story, 23-ton Bellerophon Taming Pegasus, was dedicated at Columbia University in New York City.
We also took a look at Man with a Guitar, by Jacques Lipchitz.
While most of the works are on display for the first time, a number of pieces, like ``Death Mask of Amedeo Modigliani'' by Jacques Lipchitz, have been on display, briefly, and were ``deinstalled'' in order to be included in the lower gallery exhibit.
I was not there to witness the worst, only the beginning," wrote Mary Jayne Gold, who died on October 5 at the age of 88, near Saint-Tropez; in 1940, as a young American heiress in Marseilles, a fancy tourist, she had helped thousands of Jews, among them Marc Chagall, Jacques Lipchitz, and Hannah Arendt, to get out of France.
Meanwhile, in Paris, a retrospective of sculptures by Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973) is on show until 30 August at Galerie Steinitz (77 Rue Saint HonorS; +33 1 56 43 66 70).
Clockwise from left are Matta, Andre Breton, Piet Mondrian, Andre Masson, Amedee Ozenfant, Jacques Lipchitz, Pavel Tchelitchev, Kurt Seligmann, Eugene Berman, Ferdinand Leger, Marc Chagall, Max Ernst, Yves Tanguy and Ossip Zadkine.
Ossip Zadkine, Jacques Lipchitz, Jules Pascin, Moise Kisling and Chaim Soutine became some of Modigliani's closest friends after he moved to Paris, his home from 1906.
Another sculptor friend, Jacques Lipchitz, was born in Druskieniki, Lithuania: his name was originally Chaim Jacob Lipchitz.
It is embellished with decorative art designed expressly for it, ranging from seven bas-reliefs by Jacques Lipchitz for the exterior to Matisse's mural The dance for the interior.