Jacques Lipchitz


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Lipchitz, Jacques

(zhäk lēpshēts`), 1891–1973, French sculptor, b. Lithuania as Chaim Jacob Lipchitz. From 1909, Lipchitz studied in Paris, where he became a member of the Esprit Nouveau group. From about 1915 to 1930 he was widely recognized as one of the major cubist (see cubismcubism,
art movement, primarily in painting, originating in Paris c.1907. Cubist Theory

Cubism began as an intellectual revolt against the artistic expression of previous eras.
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) sculptors. Among his characteristic cubist bronzes in American collections are Girl with a Braid (c.1914–15, Philadelphia Mus. of Art) and Bather (1923–25, Sheldon Memorial Art Gall., Lincoln, Neb.). His vibrant skeletal constructions, which he originated in 1913, are unique in modern sculpture. In 1924 he began creating transparent sculptures, using the lost-wax technique, that resembled drawings in bronze. Allegories of struggle preoccupied him in the late 1930s, and he executed such works as The Rape of Europa, Bull and Candor, and Prometheus. Lipchitz emigrated to the United States in 1941, became a citizen in 1957, and spent much of his last decade in Italy. Returning briefly to France after World War II, he was commissioned in 1946 to design a font for the new church of Assy, Haute-Savoie. The bronze models for it, along with many of his works, were destroyed by fire in his New York studio in 1952, but the following year he resumed work on the Assy Madonna and on another sculpture, The Spirit of Enterprise, for Fairmount Park, Philadelphia. His American-period works broke with his earlier cool semi-abstract forms and he created many muscularly rounded, emotionally evocative, and often monumental sculptures. The most ambitious of these is probably Peace on Earth (1967–70, Los Angeles Music Center). In 1955 he also began producing his celebrated semiautomatics—masses of clay or plasticine, which he first molded underwater, using only his sense of touch, before seeing the sculpture through to completion. Other examples of his work are in such collections as the Museum of Modern Art, New York City, and the Barnes Foundation, Philadelphia.

Bibliography

See his My Life in Sculpture, written with H. H. Arnason (1972); biography by A. G. Wilkinson (1990); studies by B. Van Born (1966) and H. H. Arnason (1969).

Lipchitz, Jacques (b. Chaim Jacob)

(1891–1973) sculptor; born in Druskienki, Lithuania. He studied in Paris (1909–11), established a studio (1913), and became a master of cubism, as in Joy of Life (1927). In 1941 he emigrated to New York City, and his work became more emotional and fluid, as in Prometheus Strangling the Vulture II (1944–45). He lived in Hastings-on-Hudson, N.Y. (1947–63) and in Italy (1963–73).
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The exhibition focuses on the years of 1900-1955, a period of great social and artistic activity, and includes more than 70 works--painting, sculpture, photographs and works on paper--by 46 artists such as Theresa Bernstein, Ilse Bing, Albert Bloch, Adolph Gottlieb, Jacques Lipchitz, Morris Louis, Robert Motherwell, Elie Nadelman, Arnold Newman, Larry Rivers, Ben Shahn, Aaron, Siskind, Raphael Soyer, Alfred Stiglitz, Max Weber and Weegee.
Morrison both kicks at and kisses the proverbial behinds of a host of modernist sculptors, particularly Jacques Lipchitz, Gonstantin Brancusi, Alberto Giacometti, Barbara Hepworth, and Henry Moore.
Others fortunate enough to escape by this route included Hannah Arendt, Jacques Lipchitz and Marc Chagall, Franz Werfel, and Lion Feuchtwanger--and at the very last moment, the aged grandparents too.
16, at 64; Jacques Lipchitz, pioneer of cubist sculpture, May 26, at 81; Lauritz Melchior, leading Wagnerian tenor of the 1930s and 1940s, Mar.
During the Occupation, Vierny joined the Emergency Rescue Committee, which helped anti-Nazi and Jewish refugees escape across the border into Spain--among them artists and intellectuals such as Marc Chagall, Max Ernst and Jacques Lipchitz. After being arrested but acquitted, Maillol sent her out of harm's way to pose for Matisse in Nice with the note: 'Matisse, I am sending you the object of my work; so you can reduce her to a line.' In 1943, she was arrested by the Gestapo in Paris, and was released only after Maillol petitioned Arno Breker, Hitler's favourite sculptor.
We also took a look at Man with a Guitar, by Jacques Lipchitz. I didn't give them the title of the sculpture until they'd seen the slide.
"I was not there to witness the worst, only the beginning," wrote Mary Jayne Gold, who died on October 5 at the age of 88, near Saint-Tropez; in 1940, as a young American heiress in Marseilles, a fancy tourist, she had helped thousands of Jews, among them Marc Chagall, Jacques Lipchitz, and Hannah Arendt, to get out of France.
Meanwhile, in Paris, a retrospective of sculptures by Jacques Lipchitz (1891-1973) is on show until 30 August at Galerie Steinitz (77 Rue Saint HonorS; +33 1 56 43 66 70).
It is embellished with decorative art designed expressly for it, ranging from seven bas-reliefs by Jacques Lipchitz for the exterior to Matisse's mural The dance for the interior.