Jacques Maritain


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Jacques Maritain
Birthday
BirthplaceParis, France
Died
NationalityFrench
Occupation
Theologian, Philosopher

Maritain, Jacques

 

Born Nov. 18, 1882, in Paris; died Apr. 29, 1973, in Toulouse. French philosopher. Representative of neo-Thomism.

Maritain was educated at the Henry IV Lycee and at the Sorbonne. He was a student of H. Bergson. In 1906 he converted to Catholicism. He was a professor at the Catholic Institute in Paris (from 1914), the Institute of Medieval Studies in Toronto (from 1933), Princeton University (1941-42), and Columbia University (1941-44). In 1945-48 he served as French ambassador to the Vatican. In 1948-53 he was a professor and after 1953 professor emeritus at Princeton University.

Maritain considered the entire development of the philosophy of the modern period to be a decline and degeneration of philosophic thought. In his view the work of Luther, Descartes, and Rousseau represented the triumph of subjectivism and arbitrariness in the spheres of faith, thought, and feeling, which led to moral and social chaos. Maritain believed that chaos could be overcome by returning to medieval “clarity” and suprapersonal objectivity. Opposing the intuitivism of Bergson, Maritain sought to reconcile “grace and nature, faith and reason, theology and philosophy” (De Bergson a Thomas d’Aquin, Paris, 1947, p. 133). According to Maritain, science has its own object—the created world—but “above” this natural world there exists a higher, supernatural world.

In New York, Maritain initiated a series of publications dealing with problems of “political philosophy” (Civilization), which included works criticizing modern capitalism and bourgeois democracy from positions of “Christian democracy” and “humanism,” but refuting the socialist transformation of society. Maritain is also known for his works in art and pedagogy.

WORKS

Antimoderne. Paris, 1922.
Science et sagesse. Paris, 1935.
Humanisme intégral. Paris, 1936.
Christianisme et démocratic. New York, 1943.
Trois Réformateurs. Paris, 1947.
Art et scolastique. Paris, 1947.
Réflexions sur l’Amerique. Paris, 1958.
Pour Une Philosophic de l’education. Paris, 1959.
La Philosophic morale. Paris, 1960.
La Philosophic dans la cite. Paris, 1960.
Dieu et la permission du ma I. Paris, 1963.
L’Intuition creatrice dans l’art et dans la poesie. Paris, 1966.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, V. N. Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia 20 v. Moscow, 1970. Pages 173-201.
Jaroszewski, T. M. Lichnost’ i obshchestvo. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from Polish.)
Rossi, E. II pensiero politico di J. Maritain. Milan, 1956.
Simonsen, V. L. L’Esthetique de J. Maritain. Copenhagen, 1956.
Gallagher, D., and I. Gallagher. The Achievement of Jacques and Raissa Maritain: A Bibliography (1906-1961). New York, 1962.
Forni, G. La filosofia del/a storia nelpensiero politico di Jacques Maritain. Bologna [1965].
Fecher, Ch. A. The Philosophy of J. Maritain. New York, 1969.

T. A. SAKHAROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
21) Jacques Maritain, Humanisme integral, Paris: Aubier, editions Montaigne, Foi vivante, 66, 1968, p.
16) But when one does not accept the distinction between antecedent and consequent wills in God, ensuing universalism is almost inevitable (17)--hence why Thomists like Jacques Maritain, Bernard Lonergan, and William Most, building on the interpretative work of Francisco Marin-Sola, use the distinction in a way that does not contradict the universal salvific will of God.
En el caso de Jacques Maritain, la reflexion de Jose A.
Debemos agradecer el acierto de Rogelio Rovira en recuperar esta conferencia del ano 1949 de Jacques Maritain para el lector de habla castellana sobre el fenomeno del ateismo contemporaneo (del s.
Etienne Gilson a l'universite Harvard en 1926 et a l'universite de Toronto (2), Paul Claudel a l'ambassade de France a Washington de 1926 a 1933 (3), Georges Bernanos au Bresil de 1938 a 1945 (4), Jacques Maritain a Buenos Aires en 1936 (5), a New York de 1940 a 1945, a Mexico en 1947 et a Princeton apres la guerre, ou meme Julian Green, ne a Paris de parents americains, qui navigue entre la France, la Virginie et New York au temps de la Seconde Guerre mondiale : les plus celebres intellectuels catholiques francais ont en commun de posseder un ancrage atlantique.
2) Neo-Thomism (Etienne Gilson, Jacques Maritain, and Karol Wojtyla (Pope John Paul II)); (ch.
Lewis, Marshall Field III, Jane Addams-style social workers, the French philosopher Jacques Maritain, women-loving priests, and both black and white organizers.
Una de las reacciones intelectuales mas vigorosas y sistematicas en este campo fue la protagonizada por el filosofo frances Jacques Maritain (1882-1973), quien por cerca de cincuenta anos propuso y perfecciono una articulada propuesta epistemologica (7).
Jacques Maritain, nel volume L'uomo e lo Stato (1951), l'ultimo scritto di filosofia politica, propone una filosofia umanista e piu precisamente personalista-comunitaria esaltando la necessita dell etica per conseguire una razionalizzazione morale della politica.
This contrasts sharply with the America described by the French philosopher Jacques Maritain, in his 1958 Reflections on America.
Joseph Cardijn and the Young Christian Workers, Jacques Maritain in his Integral Humanism, Emmanuel Mounier in "Personalism," Marie-Dominique Chenu on the theology of labor, and Marc Sangnier in the Le Sillon movement are all major examples of this focus on social consequences of faith.
The French philosopher Jacques Maritain (1882-1973) has come to be considered a dissident Catholic voice in his outspoken criticism of antisemitism.