Jacques Maritain


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Jacques Maritain
Birthday
BirthplaceParis, France
Died
NationalityFrench
Occupation
Theologian, Philosopher

Maritain, Jacques

 

Born Nov. 18, 1882, in Paris; died Apr. 29, 1973, in Toulouse. French philosopher. Representative of neo-Thomism.

Maritain was educated at the Henry IV Lycee and at the Sorbonne. He was a student of H. Bergson. In 1906 he converted to Catholicism. He was a professor at the Catholic Institute in Paris (from 1914), the Institute of Medieval Studies in Toronto (from 1933), Princeton University (1941-42), and Columbia University (1941-44). In 1945-48 he served as French ambassador to the Vatican. In 1948-53 he was a professor and after 1953 professor emeritus at Princeton University.

Maritain considered the entire development of the philosophy of the modern period to be a decline and degeneration of philosophic thought. In his view the work of Luther, Descartes, and Rousseau represented the triumph of subjectivism and arbitrariness in the spheres of faith, thought, and feeling, which led to moral and social chaos. Maritain believed that chaos could be overcome by returning to medieval “clarity” and suprapersonal objectivity. Opposing the intuitivism of Bergson, Maritain sought to reconcile “grace and nature, faith and reason, theology and philosophy” (De Bergson a Thomas d’Aquin, Paris, 1947, p. 133). According to Maritain, science has its own object—the created world—but “above” this natural world there exists a higher, supernatural world.

In New York, Maritain initiated a series of publications dealing with problems of “political philosophy” (Civilization), which included works criticizing modern capitalism and bourgeois democracy from positions of “Christian democracy” and “humanism,” but refuting the socialist transformation of society. Maritain is also known for his works in art and pedagogy.

WORKS

Antimoderne. Paris, 1922.
Science et sagesse. Paris, 1935.
Humanisme intégral. Paris, 1936.
Christianisme et démocratic. New York, 1943.
Trois Réformateurs. Paris, 1947.
Art et scolastique. Paris, 1947.
Réflexions sur l’Amerique. Paris, 1958.
Pour Une Philosophic de l’education. Paris, 1959.
La Philosophic morale. Paris, 1960.
La Philosophic dans la cite. Paris, 1960.
Dieu et la permission du ma I. Paris, 1963.
L’Intuition creatrice dans l’art et dans la poesie. Paris, 1966.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, V. N. Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia 20 v. Moscow, 1970. Pages 173-201.
Jaroszewski, T. M. Lichnost’ i obshchestvo. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from Polish.)
Rossi, E. II pensiero politico di J. Maritain. Milan, 1956.
Simonsen, V. L. L’Esthetique de J. Maritain. Copenhagen, 1956.
Gallagher, D., and I. Gallagher. The Achievement of Jacques and Raissa Maritain: A Bibliography (1906-1961). New York, 1962.
Forni, G. La filosofia del/a storia nelpensiero politico di Jacques Maritain. Bologna [1965].
Fecher, Ch. A. The Philosophy of J. Maritain. New York, 1969.

T. A. SAKHAROVA

References in periodicals archive ?
16) But when one does not accept the distinction between antecedent and consequent wills in God, ensuing universalism is almost inevitable (17)--hence why Thomists like Jacques Maritain, Bernard Lonergan, and William Most, building on the interpretative work of Francisco Marin-Sola, use the distinction in a way that does not contradict the universal salvific will of God.
Jacques Maritain, to whom John Paul II is evidently indebted for his discussions of human work here and in other writings, was alive to this risk and exercised a caution less obvious in the Pope's statements; see Jacques Maritain, Art and Scholasticism and the Frontiers of Poetry, trans.
In the wake of former prime minister Nicolas Sarkozy's having grappled vainly with the issue of French identity, one is drawn to that earlier work of Jacques Maritain, who attempted to take the measure not of France but or America in a similarly troubled time.
Drawing upon the aesthetic thought of Jacques Maritain, Williams discerns its affinity with the artistic practice of David Jones and Flannery O'Connor.
Joseph Cardijn and the Young Christian Workers, Jacques Maritain in his Integral Humanism, Emmanuel Mounier in "Personalism," Marie-Dominique Chenu on the theology of labor, and Marc Sangnier in the Le Sillon movement are all major examples of this focus on social consequences of faith.
Elles se reclament de Jacques Maritain et du catholicisme liberal et elles entretiennent des relations avec Georges Bernanos, alors refugie au Bresil.
In 1926, aged 50, she fell in love with Vra Oumanoff, the sister-in-law of philosopher Jacques Maritain.
In particular, the French Catholic thinker Jacques Maritain developed arguments as to why Christians should embrace democracy and human rights.
At that time, writings by learned European theologians appeared in Cross Currents: Etienne Gilson, Jacques Maritain, Hans Kung, Yves Congar, Romano Guardini.
Each chapter discusses a different virtuous ideal with reference to model individuals whose dedication spiritually embodied that ideal: Dorothy Day for the ideal of Christian Vision, Jacques Maritain for Christian Values, Mother Teresa of Calcutta for Christian Virtue, and more.
La Releve fait fonction de relais des idees europeennes de l'entre-deux-guerres : pensons au personnalisme d'Esprit et d'Ordre nouveau (a travers DanielRops surtout), et au neothomisme de Jacques Maritain.
Brown's personal correspondence with such important literary and cultural figures as Sylvia Beach, John Dos Passos, Marianne Moore, Wallace Stevens, Brassai, and Jacques Maritain forms a substantial portion of the John L.