Jacques Maritain


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Jacques Maritain
Birthday
BirthplaceParis, France
Died
NationalityFrench
Occupation
Theologian, Philosopher

Maritain, Jacques

 

Born Nov. 18, 1882, in Paris; died Apr. 29, 1973, in Toulouse. French philosopher. Representative of neo-Thomism.

Maritain was educated at the Henry IV Lycee and at the Sorbonne. He was a student of H. Bergson. In 1906 he converted to Catholicism. He was a professor at the Catholic Institute in Paris (from 1914), the Institute of Medieval Studies in Toronto (from 1933), Princeton University (1941-42), and Columbia University (1941-44). In 1945-48 he served as French ambassador to the Vatican. In 1948-53 he was a professor and after 1953 professor emeritus at Princeton University.

Maritain considered the entire development of the philosophy of the modern period to be a decline and degeneration of philosophic thought. In his view the work of Luther, Descartes, and Rousseau represented the triumph of subjectivism and arbitrariness in the spheres of faith, thought, and feeling, which led to moral and social chaos. Maritain believed that chaos could be overcome by returning to medieval “clarity” and suprapersonal objectivity. Opposing the intuitivism of Bergson, Maritain sought to reconcile “grace and nature, faith and reason, theology and philosophy” (De Bergson a Thomas d’Aquin, Paris, 1947, p. 133). According to Maritain, science has its own object—the created world—but “above” this natural world there exists a higher, supernatural world.

In New York, Maritain initiated a series of publications dealing with problems of “political philosophy” (Civilization), which included works criticizing modern capitalism and bourgeois democracy from positions of “Christian democracy” and “humanism,” but refuting the socialist transformation of society. Maritain is also known for his works in art and pedagogy.

WORKS

Antimoderne. Paris, 1922.
Science et sagesse. Paris, 1935.
Humanisme intégral. Paris, 1936.
Christianisme et démocratic. New York, 1943.
Trois Réformateurs. Paris, 1947.
Art et scolastique. Paris, 1947.
Réflexions sur l’Amerique. Paris, 1958.
Pour Une Philosophic de l’education. Paris, 1959.
La Philosophic morale. Paris, 1960.
La Philosophic dans la cite. Paris, 1960.
Dieu et la permission du ma I. Paris, 1963.
L’Intuition creatrice dans l’art et dans la poesie. Paris, 1966.

REFERENCES

Kuznetsov, V. N. Frantsuzskaia burzhuaznaia filosofiia 20 v. Moscow, 1970. Pages 173-201.
Jaroszewski, T. M. Lichnost’ i obshchestvo. Moscow, 1973. (Translated from Polish.)
Rossi, E. II pensiero politico di J. Maritain. Milan, 1956.
Simonsen, V. L. L’Esthetique de J. Maritain. Copenhagen, 1956.
Gallagher, D., and I. Gallagher. The Achievement of Jacques and Raissa Maritain: A Bibliography (1906-1961). New York, 1962.
Forni, G. La filosofia del/a storia nelpensiero politico di Jacques Maritain. Bologna [1965].
Fecher, Ch. A. The Philosophy of J. Maritain. New York, 1969.

T. A. SAKHAROVA

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Francois Mauriac and Jacques Maritain are two great figures of French letters who are linked by much and separated by much.
Like Jacques Maritain who refused De Gaulle's request and had to be persuaded by others to accept the post of French Ambassador to the Vatican, Mauriac was at first suspicious of the General and of his "certaine idee de la France." Though his denunciations of oppression, violence and injustice did not cease, Mauriac seems to Bracher to give to too much ground to the General's authoritarianism and to the kind of "grandeur" that only De Gaulle could restore to France.
(17.) Jacques Maritain, Man and the State (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1951), 84.
As Uhde says, quoting Jacques Maritain, for the Gothic artist "human nature was wounded and demanded redemption," which was never unequivocally given.(5) Rooted in an unhealable wound, Gothic aspiration nevertheless tries to tum the symptoms of pathology and hurt to creative advantage - to transfigure their meaning by exaggerating their appearance.
Psichari journey toward an acceptance of religious faith was encouraged by the French Roman Catholic intellectuals Maurice Barres, Charles Peguy, and Jacques Maritain. L'Appel des armes (1913; "The Call to Arms"), a military novel that became a guide for nationalist youth before World War I, recorded his experiences as a soldier in Africa (1906-12).
In this context, he frequently alludes to Jacques Maritain, who for years was his "spiritual father."
The thinkers are Thomas Cajetan and John Poinsot from the early commentary tradition, and AaAaAeAaAaAeAeAEtiene Gi and Jacques Maritain from the later tradition.
Jacques Maritain, a distinguished pupil of Bergson, was eventually drawn into the dialogue.