Shah Jahan

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Shah Jahan

or

Shah Jehan

(both: shä jəhän`), 1592–1666, MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of JahangirJahangir
or Jehangir
, 1569–1627, Mughal emperor of India (1605–27), son of Akbar. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614.
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. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628. In the course of his long reign he conquered most of the Deccan and temporarily (1638–49) recovered Kandahar from the Persians. Shah Jahan's reign is considered the golden age of Mughal art and architectureMughal art and architecture,
a characteristic Indo-Islamic-Persian style that flourished on the Indian subcontinent during the Mughal empire (1526–1857). This new style combined elements of Islamic art and architecture, which had been introduced to India during the Delhi
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. Among the buildings he erected were the unsurpassed Taj MahalTaj Mahal
, mausoleum, Agra, Uttar Pradesh state, N India, on the Yamuna River. It is considered one of the most beautiful buildings in the world and the finest example of the late style of Indian Islamic architecture.
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 and the Pearl Mosque, both at Agra, and the new city at DelhiDelhi
, union territory and city, N central India. The union territory, officially the National Capital Territory of Delhi (2001 provisional pop. 13,782,976), 573 sq mi (1,484 sq km), is on the Delhi plain, which is crossed by the Yamuna River and stretches between the Aravalli
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, which he made his capital. Literature also flourished at his magnificent court. Shah Jahan fell seriously ill in 1657, and this led to a war of succession among his sons. In 1658 he was deposed and imprisoned for the rest of his life by his son AurangzebAurangzeb
or Aurangzib
, 1618–1707, Mughal emperor of India (1658–1707), son and successor of Shah Jahan. He served (1636–44, 1653–58) as viceroy of the Deccan but was constantly at odds with his father and his eldest brother, Dara Shikoh, the
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.

Bibliography

See B. P. Saksena, History of Shahjahan of Dihli (rev. ed. 1958, repr. 1962); M. Lal, Shahjahan (1986).

Shah Jahan

 

Born Jan. 5,1592, in Lahore; died Jan. 22,1666, in Agra. Ruler of the Mogul Empire (1627–58).

Shah Jahan’s given name was Khurram; he received the titular name of Shah Jahan (literally, “ruler of the world”) in 1616 for his victories in the Deccan. Between 1622 and 1625 he led a rebellion against his father, Jahangir, but he was defeated and forgiven. After becoming the Great Mogul in 1627, he killed his brothers and other relatives in order to be rid of pretenders to the throne. During Shah Jahan’s reign magnificent structures were erected, including the Taj Mahal in Agra and the Red Fort and Jumma Masjid in Delhi; these structures are among the finest examples of Mogul architecture.

Despite its outward splendor, however, the Mogul Empire declined under Shah Jahan. Evidence of the decline may be seen in the terrible famine that struck the southern part of the country in 1630 and in the failure of numerous attempts to recover Kandahar, which had been captured by Iran. The spread of European trading companies in India intensified during Shah Jahan’s reign.

A rumor of the emperor’s death in 1658 led to internecine warfare among his sons, as a result of which the eldest, Aurangzeb, seized the throne. Thereafter, Shah Jahan was imprisoned in his chambers until he died in 1666.

Shah Jahan

1592--1666, Mogul emperor (1628--58). During his reign the finest monuments of Mogul architecture in India were built, including the Taj Mahal and the Pearl Mosque at Agra
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