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(both: jəhän'gēr`), 1569–1627, MughalMughal
or Mogul
, Muslim empire in India, 1526–1857. The dynasty was founded by Babur, a Turkic chieftain who had his base in Afghanistan. Babur's invasion of India culminated in the battle of Panipat (1526) and the occupation of Delhi and Agra.
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 emperor of India (1605–27), son of AkbarAkbar
, 1542–1605, Mughal emperor of India (1556–1605); son of Humayun, grandson of Babur. He succeeded to the throne under a regent, Bairam Khan, who rendered loyal service in expanding and consolidating the Mughal domains before he was summarily dismissed (1560) by
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. He continued his father's policy of expansion. The Rajput principality of Mewar (Udaipur) capitulated in 1614. In the Deccan, Ahmadnagar was taken in 1616 and half of its kingdom annexed. In the northwest, however, the Persian ruler, Shah AbbasAbbas
, d. 653, uncle of Muhammad the Prophet and of Ali the caliph. A wealthy merchant of Mecca, he was at first opposed to the religious movement initiated by his nephew Muhammad.
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, retook (1622) Kandahar. In 1611, Jahangir married a Persian widow, Nur JahanNur Jahan,
1577–1645, empress (1611–27) of Mughal India. Born Mehrunnisa in Kandahar (now in Afghanistan), she was the daughter of Persian nobility and had been widowed before she became the favorite wife of Mughal emperor Jahangir.
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, and she and her relatives soon dominated politics, while Jahangir devoted himself to cultivation of the arts, especially miniature painting. He welcomed foreign visitors to his court, granting trading privileges first to the Portuguese and then to the British East India Company. Civil strife and court intrigues marked the last years of Jahangir's reign. Shah JahanShah Jahan
or Shah Jehan
, 1592–1666, Mughal emperor of India (1628–58), son and successor of Jahangir. His full name was Khurram Shihab-ud-din Muhammad. He rebelled against his father in 1622 but was pardoned and succeeded to the throne in 1628.
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, his son, succeeded him.


See B. Prasad, History of Jahangir (1922).

The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia™ Copyright © 2013, Columbia University Press. Licensed from Columbia University Press. All rights reserved. www.cc.columbia.edu/cu/cup/
The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.



(also Jehangir; Persian, literally “conqueror of the world”; title as ruler). Born 1569; died 1627. Ruler of the state of the Great Moguls from 1605 to 1627. Son of Akbar.

Jahangir’s reign was marked by a weakening of central authority, an increase in the power and authority of the feudal jagirdars, and a flourishing of corruption. In 1613 he permitted the English East India Company to establish a trading station at Surat. In 1622 the Persians took the city of Kandahar, the “key” to the caravan trade, from the Moguls. Jahangir devoted little attention to affairs of state. His wife, Nur Jahan, had great political influence. Jahangir’s memoirs are entitled Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri.


The Tuzuk-i-Jahangiri, or Memoirs of Jahangir. London, 1909.


Kennedy, P. A History of the Great Moghuls, or A History of the Badshahate of Delhi, vols. 1-2. Calcutta, 1908-11.
The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
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