Boehme, Jakob

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Boehme or Böhme, Jakob

(bē`mə, Ger. yä`kôp bö`mə), 1575–1624, German religious mystic, a cobbler of Görlitz, in England also called Behmen. He was a student of the Bible and was influenced by Paracelsus. In his major works, De signatura rerum (tr. The Signature of all Things, 1912) and Mysterium magnum, Boehme describes God as the abyss, the nothing and the all, the primordial depths from which the creative will struggles forth to find manifestation and self-consciousness. Evil is a result of the striving of single elements of Deity to become the whole; conflict ensues as man and nature strive to achieve God who, in himself, contains all antithetical principles. Boehme exerted a profound influence on the philosophies of Baader, Schelling, Hegel, and Schopenhauer. Boehme claimed divine revelation and had many followers in Germany and Holland. Societies of Behmenites were formed in England; many of them were later absorbed by the Quakers.

Bibliography

See The Confessions of Jacob Boehme, ed. by W. S. Palmer (1954); study by D. Walsh (1983); biography by F. Hartmann (1985).

Boehme, Jakob

 

Born 1575 in Altseidenberg; died Nov. 17, 1624, in Görlitz. German philosopher, advocate of pantheism. By profession a shoemaker.

Characteristic of Boehme’s works are a fusion of natural philosophy and mysticism, exalted style, and the presence of a great number of biblical and poetic images. God, according to Boehme, is one with nature and encompasses everything within himself—heaven and hell, the inner and the outer, good and evil; he creates himself from “nothing” by splitting his original, undifferentiated unity in half and giving the two parts opposing characteristics: light and dark, good and evil. The elemental-dialectic ideas of Boehme heavily influenced the subsequent development of German philosophy (F. Baader, F. von Schelling, G. W. F. Hegel). K. Marx and F. Engels used Boehme’s term “torment (Qual) of the material” to mean a goal, a life spirit, or a straining for the characteristics of the principle of self-motivation (see Soch., 2nd ed., vol. 2, p. 142).

WORKS

Sammtliche Werke, vols. 1–7. Leipzig, 1922.
Glaube und Tat. Berlin, 1957.
In Russian translation:
Aurora, ili Utrenniaia zaria v voskhozhdenii. Moscow, 1914. (Translated from German.)

REFERENCES

Leven, V. G. “Iakob Beme i ego uchenie.” Vestnik istorii mirovoikul’tury, 1958, no. 5.
Feierbakh, L. Istoriiafilosofii, vol. 1. Moscow, 1967.
Grunsky, H. Jacob Bohme. Stuttgart, 1956.
Stoudt, J. J. Sunrise to Eternity. Philadelphia, 1957.

A. V. GULYGA

References in periodicals archive ?
From Eckhart, we trace the line of apophatic discourse into Jakob Bohme and Angelus Silesius.
Surveying Christian theosophic tradition of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (for example, Jakob Bohme, John Pordage, Jane Leade, Johann Georg Gichtel, Gottfried Arnold), Arthur Versluis stresses that such figures are unacknowledged antecedents of the religious pluralism and ecumenism of the twentieth century, and observes that notions of Protestantism as excessively masculine and antimystical are countered by "several centuries of literature founded in Judeo-Christian Sophianic spirituality" (232).
And he praises the efforts of Neoplatonism (not to be confused with Platonism), Aquinas, and the mystic Jakob Bohme since they all develop systems of thought that attempt to reconcile concepts of general and particular, subject and object, spirit and body.