Jakob Von Uexküll

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Uexküll, Jakob Von

 

Born Sept. 8, 1864, in Keblaste, now in Estonian SSR; died July 25, 1944, on Capri. German biologist, zoopsychologist, and philosopher.

A graduate of the University of Tartu, Uexkiill worked at the physiological institute in Heidelberg (Germany) and at the zoological station in Naples. In 1925 he became a professor at the University of Hamburg, where he created an institute for the study of the relationships of animals with the environment. He investigated the motor systems of animals (mainly invertebrates), the physiology of muscle contraction and nerve excitation, and other problems of comparative physiology. Uexkiill’s works contributed substantially to the development of the concept of the unity of the organism and the environment. His views of the world surrounding the animal served as one of the theoretical bases of ethology. He developed idealistic theological views in his works on the philosophy of natural science.

WORKS

Leitfaden in das Studium der experimentellen Biologie der Wassertiere. Wiesbaden, 1905.
Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1921.
Theoretische Biologie, 2nd ed. Berlin, 1928.
Bedeutungslehre. Leipzig, 1940.
Das allmächtige Leben. Hamburg, 1950.
Streifzüge durch die Umwelten von Tieren und Menschen. Hamburg, 1958. (With G. Kriszat.)
K. E. FABRI
References in periodicals archive ?
Compreendendo ainda, o sujeito artista visual como um viajante no espaco e no tempo, susceptivel as necessidades de adaptacao em relacao a sua cupula fisica e cultural especifica, delimitada pelo seu Umwelt, seria possivel compreender a possibilidade de uma relacao analogica deste conceito com a formacao do imaginario do sujeito, quando Oscar Castro Garcia define este conceito em Jakob von Uexkull. El concepto de Umwelt y el origen de la biosemiotica, (2009):
Resumen: En este articulo sostengo que los planteamientos de Jakob von Uexkull constituyen un apoyo cientifico decisivo para las reflexiones metafisicas de Martin Heidegger sobre el mundo, mas alla de lo que el mismo Heidegger reconoce explicitamente.
The sorts of non-lingual modes of interaction between human woman and non-human infant resemble the legitimation of alternative animal communication and perceptions in Jakob von Uexkull's "Umwelt": the world as it is experienced by a particular organism.
Instead, my reading of Heidegger in the next section focuses on how he, by utilizing Jakob von Uexkull's biology, configures the essence of man in comparison with animals, and I will later in the essay try to measure the weight of this configuration against his controversial association with Nazism.
After a rather simplistic discussion of bees as representative examples of instinctive 'drivenness' among animals, he focused particularly on the work of Hans Dreisch on entelechy and on Jakob von Uexkull's careful demonstrations of the subjectivity and agency of various animals.
(3) O autor usou "squid Umwelt", fazendo uso da palavra em alemao "Umwelt", como empregada por Jakob von Uexkull. Literalmente, a palavra significa meioambiente, mas Uexkull a emprega no sentido do mundo subjetivo de cada ser vivo, ou seja, seu universo fenomenologico.
(2) A diferencia de este tratamiento, en sus Grundbegriffe radicaliza la pregunta por el vinculo entre lo simplemente viviente y el Dasein, dialogando con la biologia y zoologia contemporaneas (Hans Driesch, Karl von Baer, Johannes Muller, Jakob von Uexkull) y tomando al organismo como punto de partida para indagar el estatuto ontologico de los utiles--y, en cierto modo, de lo artificial, ya que el propio filosofo habla aqui de maquinas, instrumentos y aparatos.
Rigida atribucion de roles y competencias (ontologicamente determinada) que Heidegger lleva a cabo remitiendose especialmente a los resultados de los estudios compendiados en el Umwelt und Innenwelt der Tiere (1909) y sobretodo en la Theoretische Biologie (1920) de Jakob von Uexkull, cuya obra Heidegger define, con palabras que facilmente podrian ubicarse en el Der Mensch gehleniano, <<lo mas fructifero que la filosofia puede obtener de la biologia dominante hoy>>.
(7) 'The radical essence of the biosemiotics of the Uexkulls', says semiotician Eero Tarasti with reference to Jakob von Uexkull (1864-1944) and his son Thure von Uexkull (1908-2004), 'has been that man's symbolic, signifying activities are not reducible to biology--as it has been in sociobiology--but that, quite the reverse, all biological and organic processes are processes of semiosis'.
They were introduced "to honour and support those offering practical and exemplary answers to the most urgent challenges facing us today." The idea came from Jakob von Uexkull, a Swedish-German philatelic expert, who sold his valuable postage stamps to provide the original endowment.
At the turn of the last century, Count Jakob von Uexkull, a self-supporting German biologist noted for his strong vitalist convictions, published a paper (1900) titled "The Physiology of the Sea-urchin Spine" in which he reported that the voluntary and reflex movements of the spine are powered by a thin layer of muscle fibers that surrounds the thick articular capsule.
For this trip, it had assembled an unlikely mix of principals: the Patriarch, of course, along with Orthodox priests and archbishops, Catholic cardinals, Lutheran bishops, and an imam,but also environmental luminaries such as Teddy Goldsmith, Christine von Weisacker, Carl Jakob von Uexkull, and Vandana Shiva.