In general terms a humid and temperate period could have been occurred throughout the Mediterranean Region on the Early Holocene (11.700-7.500/7.000 cal yr BP), nuanced by a high seasonality, specially on its second half (JALUT & al., 2009; DORMOY & al., 2009; ABRANTES & al., 2012; FINSINGER & al., 2010; PEYRON & al., 2011; BRAYSHAW & al., 2011; VANNIERE & al., 2011; MAGNY & al., 2012) and interrupted by the cooling and drying 8.2 cal kyr BP event (KOBASHI & al., 2007; LOPEZ-SAEZ & al., 2008; CACHO & al., 2010).
It is also considered as a transition phase towards more arid conditions ending ca 5.500-4.500 cal yr BP (DORMOY & al., 2009; JALUT & al., 2009; PEREZ.OBIOL & al., 2011; MAGNY & al., 2012).
The Late Holocene (4.500/4.000 cal yr BP-present) shows an increasing aridification and seasonality, specially in southern areas (JALUT & al., 2009; CARRION & al., 2010; GIL-ROMERA & al., 2010; BRAYSHAW & al., 2011; MAGNY & al., 2012; PEYRON & al., 2012), and also a general trend to cooler conditions which characterizes the Neoglatial period in the Northern Hemisphere (LJUNGQVIST, 2011; WANNER & al., 2011).
Halperin, "The kipchak Connection: The Ilkhans, the Mamluks, and Ayn Jalut
," Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies 63, 2 (2000): 229-45.
The Mamluks were able to destroy the Mongol army at Ayn Jalut - and again at the second battle of Homs in 1281--by a series of attacks; their command and control mechanisms must have been impressive.
Shortly after Ayn Jalut, the Mongols were defeated again at Homs in 1260 by an army combining Ayyubid levies and Mamluks.
The old explanation of the Mamluks' success gave them far superior numbers: 120,000 against 10,000 Mongols in the battle at Ayn Jalut, for instance.
The Mamluks' morale, their disciplined desperation, certainly helped them win at Ayn Jalut and in the other hard-fought struggles covered in Dr.
He gained power by murdering his commanding officer and sovereign, Qutuz, the hero of Ayn Jalut. He then improved his public image and provided the Mamluks with a mission by reestablishing the caliphate in the person of a fugitive Abbasid from Baghdad, and accepting from him the title "Associate of the Commander of the Faithful" and the duty of carrying on jihad against the infidel Mongols and Crusaders.
Only after the Mamluk victory at Ayn Jalut was Abu 'l-Abbas in the limelight again, when the Mamluk ruler Qutuz sent an officer to make in his name an oath of loyalty to him as caliph.
(Heidemann uses the spelling al-Burli; more about that below.) The latter was at that time an independent Mamluk war-lord, who had served as governor of much of Palestine after the battle of Ayn Jalut, but unhappy with Bay-bars' rule and fearing arrest, he fled to northern Syria, where he attempted to carve out for himself an area of authority.
Krawulsky,(24) who attributes crucial importance to the Mamluk victory at Ayn Jalut as well as Mongke's death in enabling Hulegu to establish his state.