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Born Feb. 16, 1844, in London; died Nov. 20, 1916, in Paris. One of the leaders of the French and Swiss anarchist movements.
In 1868, Guillaume became a member of the Swiss organization of the First International; he was a close comrade-in-arms of M. A. Bakunin and one of the leaders of the Alliance for Social Democracy, an organizer (1870) of the Jura Federation, and the editor (1868-78) of a series of anarchist newspapers. He was expelled from the International by The Hague Congress (1872) for schismatic activity. In 1878 he moved to Paris and took part in the syndicalist movement in France. During World War I (1914-18), he was a social chauvinist. Guillaume was one of the originators of the study of the history of the First International from the anarchist viewpoint. He opposed K. Marx and F. Engels.
WORKSManifeste des anarchistes. Paris, 1889.
L’Internationale: Documents et souvenirs (1864-1878), vols. 1-4. Paris, 1905-10.