James Ward


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Ward, James

 

Born Jan. 27, 1843, in Hull, Yorkshire; died Mar. 4, 1925, in Cambridge. English psychologist and idealist philosopher.

Ward was a professor at Cambridge University from 1897. In his philosophy, he sharply criticized materialism, naturalism, and atomism as mechanical doctrines about the world; in their place he proposed a theistic viewpoint called the theory of spiritualistic monadism. He developed the idea of the qualitative differences between the kingdoms in nature; according to Ward, the real world is an aggregate of interacting “spirits,” or monads. According to V. I. Lenin’s evaluation, Ward “seizes upon the weak points in ’instinctive’ natural-scientific materialism” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 18, p. 297) and endeavors to use this to prove the philosophical untenability of materialism in general. In psychology Ward opposed evolutionism, psychophysical parallelism, and associationism. Following William James, Ward viewed the psychological subject as perceiving actively and selectively, thus emphasizing the significance of will and attention as the principal forms of mental activity.

WORKS

Naturalism and Agnosticism, vols. 1–2. London, 1899.
The Realm of Ends, or Pluralism and Theism. New York-Cambridge, 1911.
Psychological Principles. Cambridge, 1918.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Ideia razvitiia v burzhuaznoi filosofii 19 i 20 vv. [Moscow] 1962. Chapter 3, sec. 2.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Istoriia psikhologii. Moscow, 1966.
Murray, H. The Philosophy of James Ward. London, 1936.

A. S. BOGOMOLOV

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Dave Slotter leaned belligerently against the desk that barred the way to the private office of James Ward, senior partner of the firm of Ward, Knowles & Co.
James Ward wonderingly, until that gentleman broke his train of inchoate thought.
James Ward then concluded the performance by giving a song that always irresistibly rushed to his lips when he was engaged in fierce struggling or fighting.
After the satisfaction of his nights, a morning's sleep, and a breakfast of Lee Sing's, James Ward crossed the bay to San Francisco on a midday ferryboat and went to the club and on to his office, as normal and conventional a man of business as could be found in the city.
Thus it was that James Ward made a fresh and heroic effort to control the Teutonic barbarian that was half of him.
His guests rushed to possess him and acclaim him, but James Ward, suddenly looking out of the eyes of the early Teuton, saw the fair frail Twentieth Century girl he loved, and felt something snap in his brain.
BY JAMES WARD Political Editor EX-Foreign Minister Charlie Flanagan yesterday blasted the "megaphone diplomacy" used by US President Donald Trump in relation to North Korea as "unhelpful and scary.
JAMES Ward is relishing his chance to be Wimbledon's opening act tomorrow but behind the smile will lie a grief that he is still trying to come to terms with.
TENNIS DAN Evans and James Ward eased through the first round of qualifying for the Australian Open, but fellow Briton Brydan Klein crashed out in the Melbourne heat.
Londoner James Ward achieved the greatest win of his career by Turn to Page 70 PLAYER sets wARd 67 3 6 6 3 VESELY 2 From Back Page knocking out Jiri Vesely to secure a crack at Vasek Pospisil tomorrow when Murray will face Italian veteran Andreas Seppi.
ALL eyes were on Andy Murray at Queen's Club yesterday but his Davis Cup team-mate James Ward gets the chance to impress at Nottingham today, bidding to boost his Wimbledon preparations with a first-round victory over American Tim Smyczek.
ANDY MURRAY'S Wimbledon triumph has handed the chasing pack of British tennis stars a daunting yardstick, according to James Ward.