James Ward


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Ward, James

 

Born Jan. 27, 1843, in Hull, Yorkshire; died Mar. 4, 1925, in Cambridge. English psychologist and idealist philosopher.

Ward was a professor at Cambridge University from 1897. In his philosophy, he sharply criticized materialism, naturalism, and atomism as mechanical doctrines about the world; in their place he proposed a theistic viewpoint called the theory of spiritualistic monadism. He developed the idea of the qualitative differences between the kingdoms in nature; according to Ward, the real world is an aggregate of interacting “spirits,” or monads. According to V. I. Lenin’s evaluation, Ward “seizes upon the weak points in ’instinctive’ natural-scientific materialism” (Poln. sobr. soch., 5th ed., vol. 18, p. 297) and endeavors to use this to prove the philosophical untenability of materialism in general. In psychology Ward opposed evolutionism, psychophysical parallelism, and associationism. Following William James, Ward viewed the psychological subject as perceiving actively and selectively, thus emphasizing the significance of will and attention as the principal forms of mental activity.

WORKS

Naturalism and Agnosticism, vols. 1–2. London, 1899.
The Realm of Ends, or Pluralism and Theism. New York-Cambridge, 1911.
Psychological Principles. Cambridge, 1918.

REFERENCES

Bogomolov, A. S. Ideia razvitiia v burzhuaznoi filosofii 19 i 20 vv. [Moscow] 1962. Chapter 3, sec. 2.
Iaroshevskii, M. G. Istoriia psikhologii. Moscow, 1966.
Murray, H. The Philosophy of James Ward. London, 1936.

A. S. BOGOMOLOV

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James Ward wonderingly, until that gentleman broke his train of inchoate thought.
James Ward and Andy McMahon (5) of Dewsbury District held a convincing lead with 45 points, the highlight being an Albatross for James on the par five seventh hole.
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JAMES Ward is relishing his chance to be Wimbledon's opening act tomorrow but behind the smile will lie a grief that he is still trying to come to terms with.
James Ward, 28, of Stanley, has been playing in bands for 15 years and met the multi-award winning musician, composer, engineer and record producer Trevor Sewell, from Sunderland, at a buskers' night in Burnopfield.
Londoner James Ward achieved the greatest win of his career by Turn to Page 70 PLAYER sets wARd 67 3 6 6 3 VESELY 2 From Back Page knocking out Jiri Vesely to secure a crack at Vasek Pospisil tomorrow when Murray will face Italian veteran Andreas Seppi.
ALL eyes were on Andy Murray at Queen's Club yesterday but his Davis Cup team-mate James Ward gets the chance to impress at Nottingham today, bidding to boost his Wimbledon preparations with a first-round victory over American Tim Smyczek.