Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir:

see KashmirKashmir
, region and former princely state, 85,714 sq mi (222,236 sq km), NW India, NE Pakistan, and SW China. Kashmir is bordered on the west by Pakistan, on the south by India, and on the north and east by China.
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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

Jammu and Kashmir


(Kashmir), a territory in South Asia. Area, 222,000 sq km. Population approximately 5 million. Under the Indian constitution, Jammu and Kashmir is a state in the Republic of India. The chief city is Srinagar. A part of Jammu and Kashmir is controlled by the government of Pakistan.

Natural features. The territory of Jammu and Kashmir is crossed from northwest to southeast by high mountain ridges that are part of the Karakoram Range and the western Himalayas. There are glaciers, and on the slopes there are coniferous and broad-leaved forests. In the northeast the climate is mountain subtropical, which is dry with below-freezing winters. The southwest is monsoonal and warm. The important rivers are the Indus, with its tributary the Gilgit, and the Jhelum. The best developed and economically the most important area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir, located in the southwest at an elevation of approximately 1,600 m, between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayas.

Economy. More than 80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture. The sown area totals approximately 700,000 hectares (ha), of which 312,000 ha are irrigated. Concentrated in the Vale of Kashmir is one-third of all the arable land and most of the staple crops—rice (area sown, 239,000 ha; yield in 1968-69, 487,000 tons), wheat (200,000 ha sown; 210,000 tons), and corn (241,000 ha sown; 222,000 tons). Market gardens, orchards (walnuts, almonds, apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits), and plantations of medicinal herbs are of commercial importance. The range breeding of sheep (1.2 million head), goat raising (600,000 head), cattle raising (1.8 million head), and buffalo raising (400,000 head in 1966) also play an important part in the economy. A traditional occupation is the raising of silkworms.

The principal export from Jammu and Kashmir to other areas of the country is timber. Resin is collected in the forests, and fur resources are exploited (otters and leopards). Hydroelectric power resources are estimated at 6.6 million kilowatts, with a total power station capacity of approximately 44,000 kilowatts (1969). There is extensive cottage industry producing rugs, shawls, embroidery, jewelry, and items made of wood, papier-mâhe, and leather. There are silk-reeling and woolen mills, woodworking and machine shops, and leather and rug workshops in Jammu and Kashmir.

The mild climate and scenic landscapes of the Vale of Kashmir have won it fame as an international tourist attraction.


The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

Jammu and Kashmir

the official name for the part of Kashmir under Indian control
Collins Discovery Encyclopedia, 1st edition © HarperCollins Publishers 2005
References in periodicals archive ?
They thanked the people and the government of Pakistan for extending full moral, political and diplomatic support to the people of Jammu Kashmir in their just and principled indigenous struggle for freedom and the achievement of their internationally-committed birth right to self-determination.
This day is observed by the people of Jammu and Kashmir in July as Kashmir's accession to Pakistan Day by the Kashmiris living either side of the line of control and other parts of the world every year with the renewal of pledge to continue the ongoing indigenous struggle for freedom of occupied Jammu Kashmir from the Indian subjugation and to translate the idea of accession of entire Jammu Kashmir state to Pakistan into reality under the spirit of the historic resolution passed on July 19 in 1947.
He said that in the aftermath of abrogation of the special status of the Indian occupied Jammu Kashmir, there is no any constitution in the held Jammu Kashmir state at present.
India, it continued was trying to push the entire region into sever unrest and tension by revoking the special status of the internationally-acknowledged disputed Jammu Kashmir state.
He said the government was determined to carry out a number initiatives in social sector for well being of the public in Azad Jammu Kashmir and Gilgit Baltistan.
"The legal and factual background of Jammu Kashmir issue is quite clear and efforts to mislead or confuse the international community would not succeed," a Pakistani diplomat said.
The historic resolution was unanimously passed by the people of the Muslim-dominated state in a meeting of the All Jammu Kashmir Muslim Conference held at the residence of Sardar Muhammad Ibrahim Khan, the founder president of AJK this day in 1947 at Aabi Guzer in Srinagar.
According to a handout issued by the PoK government on Monday, the books included Jammu Kashmir Book of Knowledge , Wounded Memory , K ashmiriyat Part- I , Knowledge of Jammu and Kashmir: Question- Answers , Guide Map of Poonch Division and Map of Jammu and Kashmir State by Mohammad Saeed Asad; Kashmir and Partition of India and Masla Kashmir - Talkh Haqaiq by Dr Shabir Chaudhry; Srinagar Jail Se Farar Ki Kahani and Main Kon Hoon by Maqbool Butt; Kashmir Salateen Ke Ehad Main by Mohibullah Hassan; Maqbool Butt -- the life and struggle by Shams Rehman; Masla Jammu wa Kashmir and Kashmir Tareekh Ke Aaina Main by Prof Mohammad Arif Khan; and Mirpur Par Jab Qayamat Toot Pari by Bal K Gupta.
Summary: Srinagar (Jammu Kashmir) [India], Aug 31 (ANI): Restrictions in 11 more police station areas have been eased in the Kashmir valley, the Jammu and Kashmir police stated on Saturday.
RAWALPINDI -- In wake of current horrible situation prevailing in India occupied Kashmir and to provide all moral, diplomatic and political support to striving Kashmiri brethren Jammu Kashmir Solidarity Movement (JKSM) was formed and people from all walks of life joined the movement for the sake of Kashmir.
MIRPUR (AJK) -- Lambasting India for revoking special status of the Indian occupied part of the internationally acknowledged disputed Himalayan state, the AJK based nationalist political parties have announced to form their joint forum with the name of Peoples National Alliance to step up the struggle for achievement of the birth right of self determination besides to apprise external world of the increased human rights abuses in Indian occupied Jammu Kashmir.
The alliance also aims at apprising the external world of the worst human rights abuses in Indian occupied Jammu Kashmir. This was announced by Advocate Zulfiqar Ahmed Raja, Chairman of the newly-formed J and K People's National Alliance (JKPNA) at a news conference here late the other day.
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