Jammu and Kashmir

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Jammu and Kashmir:

see KashmirKashmir
, region and former princely state, 85,714 sq mi (222,236 sq km), NW India, NE Pakistan, and SW China. Kashmir is bordered on the west by Pakistan, on the south by India, and on the north and east by China.
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Jammu and Kashmir


(Kashmir), a territory in South Asia. Area, 222,000 sq km. Population approximately 5 million. Under the Indian constitution, Jammu and Kashmir is a state in the Republic of India. The chief city is Srinagar. A part of Jammu and Kashmir is controlled by the government of Pakistan.

Natural features. The territory of Jammu and Kashmir is crossed from northwest to southeast by high mountain ridges that are part of the Karakoram Range and the western Himalayas. There are glaciers, and on the slopes there are coniferous and broad-leaved forests. In the northeast the climate is mountain subtropical, which is dry with below-freezing winters. The southwest is monsoonal and warm. The important rivers are the Indus, with its tributary the Gilgit, and the Jhelum. The best developed and economically the most important area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir, located in the southwest at an elevation of approximately 1,600 m, between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayas.

Economy. More than 80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture. The sown area totals approximately 700,000 hectares (ha), of which 312,000 ha are irrigated. Concentrated in the Vale of Kashmir is one-third of all the arable land and most of the staple crops—rice (area sown, 239,000 ha; yield in 1968-69, 487,000 tons), wheat (200,000 ha sown; 210,000 tons), and corn (241,000 ha sown; 222,000 tons). Market gardens, orchards (walnuts, almonds, apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits), and plantations of medicinal herbs are of commercial importance. The range breeding of sheep (1.2 million head), goat raising (600,000 head), cattle raising (1.8 million head), and buffalo raising (400,000 head in 1966) also play an important part in the economy. A traditional occupation is the raising of silkworms.

The principal export from Jammu and Kashmir to other areas of the country is timber. Resin is collected in the forests, and fur resources are exploited (otters and leopards). Hydroelectric power resources are estimated at 6.6 million kilowatts, with a total power station capacity of approximately 44,000 kilowatts (1969). There is extensive cottage industry producing rugs, shawls, embroidery, jewelry, and items made of wood, papier-mâhe, and leather. There are silk-reeling and woolen mills, woodworking and machine shops, and leather and rug workshops in Jammu and Kashmir.

The mild climate and scenic landscapes of the Vale of Kashmir have won it fame as an international tourist attraction.


Jammu and Kashmir

the official name for the part of Kashmir under Indian control
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Even the Article 1 of the Constitution of India, determining the territory of the country, applies to Jammu and Kashmir by virtue of Article 370 only," he added.
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Jammu and Kashmir has been deprived of development whereas it deserves to be a " super state" instead of a " separate" one, Modi said.
Jammu and Kashmir developed its relationship with India because of Congress.
To popularise the game during winters, the Jammu and Kashmir Rugby Association has introduced snow rugby in the Valley.
Protest rallies and processions besides public congregations will be the hallmark of the black day in all small and major towns on either side of the Line of Control in Jammu and Kashmir state i.
He paid glowing tributes to the martyrs of Pakistan and Jammu and Kashmir who had laid down their lives for a great cause of freedom of Kashmir and defense of Pakistan.
The wounds of the people had not even healed, the flames of the burnt bodies, houses and shops were not even properly doused, and now the chief of Jammu and Kashmir has appointed Sajjad Kitchloo as the junior interior minister.
The Central Universities ( Amendment) Bill, 2009, was passed unanimously by a voice vote, paving the way for setting up one central university each in Jammu and Kashmir.
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