Jammu and Kashmir


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Jammu and Kashmir:

see KashmirKashmir
, region and former princely state, 85,714 sq mi (222,236 sq km), NW India, NE Pakistan, and SW China. Kashmir is bordered on the west by Pakistan, on the south by India, and on the north and east by China.
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Jammu and Kashmir

 

(Kashmir), a territory in South Asia. Area, 222,000 sq km. Population approximately 5 million. Under the Indian constitution, Jammu and Kashmir is a state in the Republic of India. The chief city is Srinagar. A part of Jammu and Kashmir is controlled by the government of Pakistan.

Natural features. The territory of Jammu and Kashmir is crossed from northwest to southeast by high mountain ridges that are part of the Karakoram Range and the western Himalayas. There are glaciers, and on the slopes there are coniferous and broad-leaved forests. In the northeast the climate is mountain subtropical, which is dry with below-freezing winters. The southwest is monsoonal and warm. The important rivers are the Indus, with its tributary the Gilgit, and the Jhelum. The best developed and economically the most important area is the fertile Vale of Kashmir, located in the southwest at an elevation of approximately 1,600 m, between the Pir Panjal Range and the Great Himalayas.

Economy. More than 80 percent of the population is engaged in agriculture. The sown area totals approximately 700,000 hectares (ha), of which 312,000 ha are irrigated. Concentrated in the Vale of Kashmir is one-third of all the arable land and most of the staple crops—rice (area sown, 239,000 ha; yield in 1968-69, 487,000 tons), wheat (200,000 ha sown; 210,000 tons), and corn (241,000 ha sown; 222,000 tons). Market gardens, orchards (walnuts, almonds, apples, pears, peaches, and other fruits), and plantations of medicinal herbs are of commercial importance. The range breeding of sheep (1.2 million head), goat raising (600,000 head), cattle raising (1.8 million head), and buffalo raising (400,000 head in 1966) also play an important part in the economy. A traditional occupation is the raising of silkworms.

The principal export from Jammu and Kashmir to other areas of the country is timber. Resin is collected in the forests, and fur resources are exploited (otters and leopards). Hydroelectric power resources are estimated at 6.6 million kilowatts, with a total power station capacity of approximately 44,000 kilowatts (1969). There is extensive cottage industry producing rugs, shawls, embroidery, jewelry, and items made of wood, papier-mâhe, and leather. There are silk-reeling and woolen mills, woodworking and machine shops, and leather and rug workshops in Jammu and Kashmir.

The mild climate and scenic landscapes of the Vale of Kashmir have won it fame as an international tourist attraction.

G. V. SDASIUK

Jammu and Kashmir

the official name for the part of Kashmir under Indian control
References in periodicals archive ?
He expressed satisfaction over sitting Pakistan government's untiring sincere efforts at diplomatic front for securing support and sympathies of the international community for the early peaceful solution of Kashmir issue - and most particularly to get the innocent Kashmiris freed of the ongoing siege in, now world's largest garrison of the Indian occupying forces - the bleeding Indian held state of Jammu and Kashmir.
The rally expressed grave concern over the fast-deteriorating conditions of the people in strife-torn and fully-locked indefinite curfew-riddled Indian held Jammu and Kashmir since past 10 days.
He continued that the present unilateral sinister action of Indian government to abrogate the provisions of Article 370 and 35-A of Indian constitution in derogation to the Indian constitution itself and blatant violation of the UN resolutions on Jammu and Kashmir issue and Simla Accord amount to perpetuate the Indian aggression and usurpation of the Jammu and Kashmir state, he added.
He said the ICJ condemns the legislative steps taken with respect to Jammu and Kashmir, and calls on the Indian Government to implement in full the UN High Commissioner's recommendations, including respecting the right to self-determination of people of Jammu and Kashmir, and to respect, protect and fulfill the human rights of people in Jammu and Kashmir.
Other members of the Contact Group also made statements condemning the illegal Indian actions and expressing deep concern over the developments while reiterating their continued support for the people of Jammu and Kashmir. They called for a peaceful resolution of the dispute in accordance with the United Nations Security Council resolutions and the aspirations of the Kashmiri people.
The Azad Jammu and Kashmir Council, however, has exclusive legislative and executive authority over matters included in the 'Council Legislative List' which comprises the subjects that, under the Constitution of Pakistan, belong to the federation.
At least there should be a debate whether Article 370 has benefited Jammu and Kashmir or not," Modi said as he sought to reach out to Kashmiris or the first time after becoming the BJP's prime ministerial candidate.
Besides Pakistan, special Kashmir Hour ceremonies in all small and major towns of Azad Jammu and Kashmir were the hallmark of the Day to reiterate full solidarity with the freedom-loving brethren of Kashmir besides to renew the pledge to continue giving unflinching and fullest support to Kashmiris' struggle for emancipation of the motherland from forced Indian rule.
He added that the freedom was the basic right of the people of Occupied Jammu and Kashmir and none could deny this fact.
Sources told ANI that officials briefed Shah about the present situation in Jammu and Kashmir after the opening of 190 schools in the Valley.
BERN -- Switzerland-based human rights organization, International Commission of Justice, says the Indian government's revocation of the special status of Jammu and Kashmir violates the rights of representation and participation guaranteed to the people of Jammu and Kashmir under the Indian Constitution and in international law.
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