John III Sobieski

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The following article is from The Great Soviet Encyclopedia (1979). It might be outdated or ideologically biased.

John III Sobieski


Born Aug. 17, 1629, in Olesko; died June 17, 1696, in Wilanów. King of Poland from 1674.

As grand hetmán of the crown, Sobieski commanded the Polish troops in the Polish-Turkish War of 1672–76; he crushed a Turkish army in a battle at Khotin on Nov. 11, 1673. He was elected king by the Sejm after this victory. In April 1683 he entered into an alliance with the Austrian Hapsburgs to oppose Turkish aggression; coming to the aid of the Austrians, he routed the Turks in a battle near Vienna on Sept. 12, 1683.

Sobieski drew Russia into the anti-Turkish coalition by concluding with Russia the Eternal Peace of 1686. Sobieski attempted to establish a hereditary monarchy in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth but encountered resistance from the Polish magnates and opposition from Austria and Brandenburg.

The Great Soviet Encyclopedia, 3rd Edition (1970-1979). © 2010 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
The fate of Vienna hung by a very slender thread until a relief force, commanded by Polish hero Jan Sobieski, fell on the Ottomans from the rear.
At the time, it was known as Scutum Sobieskii (Sobieski's Shield), and it is named for Jan Sobieski (1629-96), the eldest son of the castellan of Krakow in Poland.
(A bit earlier, Marcus Aurelius wrote his Meditations in the general neighborhood as he battled the "Quadi and Marcomanni.") Turkish forces passed by here on the way to their 1683 defeat at the gates of Vienna by Jan Sobieski. The castle is a ruin now, but has existed for more than 1,000 years at the crossroads of several political and religious currents that have shaped European and Western civilization.
In 1683, the King of Poland, Jan Sobieski, defeated the Turkish army in battle and a local baker, wishing to honor him, created the first "Beugel" (Polish for "stirrup") in the familiar round shape as a reference to the Kings prowess as a horseman.
The four brightest stars represent the cross on the heraldic shield of Jan Sobieski, the Polish monarch whose army halted the Turkish invasion of Europe at Vienna in 1683.