Japanization


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Japanization

the adoption of Japanese organizational practices by organizations in other societies. The key elements include JUST-IN-TIME supplier relations and stockless production; continuous improvement and zero-defects; TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT and quality circles; employee involvement, training and lifetime employment; corporate welfare, seniority wage systems and enterprise unions. Two broad issues are raised in debates about Japanization. The first issue centres on the model of Japanese practices which are supposedly being transferred to other societies. In this respect differences can be observed between those theorists who use a broad and/or static model which contextualize it within Japanese society, and those who employ a more restricted model of Japanese practices which are seen to have emerged incrementally. Those using the former model find, perhaps not surprisingly little evidence for Japanization in the UK whilst those using the latter are more open-minded (Wood, 1991; Ackroyd et al., 1988). The second issue concerns an evaluation of the benefits of Japanization. Those theorists who use a ‘received’ (some would say idealized) model point to the many advantages which flow from worker empowerment, transformed employee attitudes and industrial relations, FLEXIBLE PRODUCTION systems (see FORDISM AND POST-FORDISM), innovative capacity, and the efficient production of quality artefacts. Other theorists suggest that ‘reality’ is somewhat different. In particular, Japanese practices are perceived as Neo-Fordist systems which:
  1. reduce worker autonomy through systematic surveillance and lateral pressure in ways which involve work intensification;
  2. shift some of the costs and problems of production onto 'S queezed’ smaller suppliers; and
  3. involve a dual economy in which employees in the supplying firms are unprotected and poorly paid due, in part, to the need of larger firms to offset the cost of using practices such as permanent employment and seniority pay systems.
Collins Dictionary of Sociology, 3rd ed. © HarperCollins Publishers 2000
References in periodicals archive ?
While Playing in Isolation presents this early history of the sport in Taiwan in a fairly clear manner, providing copious details about the early success of youth baseball on the island in bridging the cultural gap between the Han Chinese, indigenous Taiwanese (referred to here as aborigines), and their Japanese conquerors, the book is less successful in its presentation of the events precipitating Taiwan's involuntary Japanization and Taiwanese history in general.
Processes of internationalization and globalization need to be specified more precisely in terms of Americanization, Japanization, Sinicization, Europeanization, and Islamicization, and the mechanisms that operate in these processes need to be isolated.
In his four-chapter study of Japanese conceptions of nobility and civility De Bary shows how the Japanization of Confucianism and Buddhism helped construct a unique version of the noble person and the common good.
"Karaoke in East Asia: Modernization, Japanization, or A[??]sianization?" In Karaoke Around the World: Global Technology, Local Singing, edited by Torn Mitsui and Shuhei Hosokawa.
He emphasizes that the Occupation and its early programme of Japanization, overseen by a civilian governor, generated no overt opposition, but because the Indian residents were pro-British, efforts to promote the Indian Independence League (IIL) failed to inspire them.
(1992), The Japanization of British Industry: New Developments in the 1990s (2nd edition), Oxford, Blackwell.
The case of the Integrated Factory at Fiat Auto' in Global Japanization?.
Indicative of this was the attention from the 1980s given to Japan, with attempts to imitate their practices (as in Ford's 'After Japan' and Malaysia's 'Look East' campaigns) and the so-called 'Japanization' of industries.