Reaction

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reaction

1. opposition to change, esp political change, or a desire to return to a former condition or system
2. a response indicating a person's feelings or emotional attitude
3. Med
a. any effect produced by the action of a drug, esp an adverse effect
b. any effect produced by a substance (allergen) to which a person is allergic the simultaneous equal and opposite force that acts on a body whenever it exerts a force on another body

Reaction

 

in the political sense, resistance to social progress; a political regime established to maintain and strengthen an outmoded social order. Reaction usually manifests itself in the struggle against the revolutionary movement, in the suppression of democratic rights and liberties, in the persecution of progressive political, public, and cultural figures, in mass terror and violence, in racial and national discrimination, and in an aggressive foreign policy. Reaction in its extreme form is fascism.

A reactionary is an adherent of political reaction, a retrograde person, an enemy of social, cultural, and scientific progress.


Reaction

 

in psychology, a behavioral act that takes place in response to a certain stimulus; a voluntary movement that takes place in response to a signal and is influenced by the subject’s idea of the task to be performed. It became necessary to investigate voluntary reaction after it was discovered that astronomers attempting to note the moment a star passed through a meridian were giving different figures. F. Bessel, who discovered this phenomenon, conducted an experiment in 1823 to measure reaction times of human beings to stimuli. The measurement of speed, intensity, and course of reactions created psychometrics as a branch of psychology with a special method of investigation—the method of reaction. Pioneers in this field included F. Donders of Denmark and W. Wundt, L. Lange, and N. N. Lange. Reaction was also studied by the Soviet psychologist K. N. Kornilov, the founder of reactology.

There are two basic types of reactions: simple and complex. In a simple reaction, a person quickly responds with a movement (motor and sensory reaction) to a single prearranged signal. In a complex reaction, when various signals are randomly given, a person responds to only one of them (discrimination reaction) or to all of them, but with various movements (choice reaction). The study of reaction has made it possible to formulate a number of principles of applied psychology, such as Hick’s law, which states that reaction time increases with an increase in the number of stimuli presented for discrimination.

REFERENCES

Wundt, W. Osnovy fiziologicheskoi psikhologii, fascs. 1–16. St. Petersburg, 1908–14.
Inzhenernaia psikhologiia za rubezhom. Moscow, 1967. Pages 408–24. (Collection of articles translated from English.)
See also references under .

V. I. MAKSIMENKO

reaction

[rē′ak·shən]
(control systems)
(mechanics)
The equal and opposite force which results when a force is exerted on a body, according to Newton's third law of motion.
(nuclear physics)
References in periodicals archive ?
Prevention of Jarisch-Herxheimer reactions by treatment with antibodies against tumor necrosis factor alpha.
In addition to the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction, another possible explanation for the frequent association between syphilis treatment late in pregnancy and subsequent birth of an infant with congenital syphilis has to do with maternal adaptations to pregnancy.
Ikoma et al., "Subclinical syphilitic hepatitis, which was markedly worsened by a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction," The American Journal of Gastroenterology, vol.
A few hours after the initial dose of ceftriaxone (2 g), the patient developed a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction consisting of left temporal headache and nausea, but the symptoms resolved spontaneously in half a day.
This is because if I hit patients with IV medications too fast, then they may get worse as a result of a severe Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction. This occurs when too much of a toxic load is created in the body and the organs become stressed as a result.
Nine patients were admitted to the hospital for treatment; six had a documented Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (i.e., fever, chills, myalgias, increased heart and respiratory rate, and hypotension).
There has not been an association of Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction in asymptomatic patients receiving doxycycline (7), although this reaction is common during treatment of patients with active illness (9).
Two hospitalized community residents who are suspected case-patients (serum specimens have yet to be tested) and who were treated with intravenous (IV) penicillin developed a Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction (a transient immunologic reaction following antibiotic treatment) (4) requiring hemodynamic support.
Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction occurred in 7 (9.3%) patients, none of whom had meningitis.